Organic semiconductors
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Organic Semiconductors. ECEN 3913 Cherwa Vang. What are Organic Semiconductors. Organic material with semiconductor properties. http://perepichka-group.mcgill.ca/images/organics2.png. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flexible_display.jpg. What are Organic Materials?.

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Organic semiconductors

Organic Semiconductors

ECEN 3913

Cherwa Vang


What are organic semiconductors

What are Organic Semiconductors

  • Organic material with semiconductor properties.

http://perepichka-group.mcgill.ca/images/organics2.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Flexible_display.jpg


What are organic materials

What are Organic Materials?

  • Chemical compounds that include carbon. Often also includes H, O, N.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Methane-2D-stereo.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Glucose_chain_structure.svg


History

History

  • 1862 - Henry Letheby obtained a partly conductive material

  • 1950s - researchers discovered that polycyclic aromatic compounds formed semi-conducting salts

  • 1954 - perylene-iodine complex discovered,  conductivity of 0.12 S/cm

  • 1972 -  researchers found metallic like conductivity in Tetrathiafulvalene and Tetracyanoq

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v453/n7198/fig_tab/453996a_F1.html


History cont

History (cont)

  • 1977 - Shirakawa et al. reported high conductivity in oxidized and iodine-doped polyacetylene. Received the 2000 Nobel prize in Chemistry for "The discovery and development of conductive polymers“

  • 1987 - The first diode device was reported at Eastman Kodak by Ching W. Tang and Steven Van Slyke

  • 1987, Koezuka and co-workers reported the first organic field-effect transistor (OFET)

  • 1990s - J. H. Burroughes, high efficiency green light emitting polymer (OLED)


Applications

Applications

  • Biodegradable electronics

  • Organic Field effect transistor (OFET)

  • Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OLED_EarlyProduct.JPG


Materials

Materials

  • Common organic transistors are made of aromatic and conjugated pi-electron systems

  • Examples

    • Benzene

    • Pentacene

    • Pentadiene

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pentacene-3D-balls.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:1,3-pentadien.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Benzene-6H-delocalized.svg


M echanics

Mechanics

  • Why aromatic and conjugated molecules?


M echanics1

Mechanics

  • Non aromatic molecules

Ethylene

Acetylene

Ethane

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/hydrogen

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/carbon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ethan_Lewis.svg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ethylene-CRC-MW-dimensions-2D.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acetylene-CRC-IR-dimensions-2D.png


Mechanics benzene molecule

Mechanics Benzene molecule

  • Aromatic molecules

    • Electrons move around carbon atoms, similar to silicon

  • More efficient with longer chains of benzene rings.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatic

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Benzene-aromatic-3D-balls.png


Electron flow

Electron Flow

  • Electron flows through the carbon chain


Rubrene

Rubrene

  • Used in OLED, and OFET

    • Highest organic mobility 40 cm2/(V·s)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rubrene-3D-spacefill.png

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rubrene.svg


Pentacene

Pentacene

  • Five Benzene Rings fused together

    • Higher mobility than amorphous silicon 5.5 cm2/(V·s)

    • Most studied organic transistor

    • Why so popular?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pentacene.svg


Pentacene mixed compounds

Pentacene mixed compounds

  • Pentacene-quinone – oxidized insulating material

  • Buckminsterfullerene - Organic Photovotaic cells

  • Terphenyl – Doping material, proved successful in MASERs.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Buckminsterfullerene-perspective-3D-balls.png

http://www.caslab.com/6-13-pentacenequinone_CAS_3029-32-1/


Ofets

OFETs

  • Similar functions to MOSFETs (A) & MESFETs (B)

  • Takes on the Thin Film Transistor (TFT) model (C)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:3_FET_strucutre.png


Tft architecture

TFT Architecture

  • Why use TFT architecture?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TFT_DIA_BIAS.png


Organic semiconductors

OLED

  • TFT Architecture

  • Different Organic materials for different colors

http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/oled3.htm


Organic semiconductors

OLED

  • Different Layers

http://www.nature.com/nmat/journal/v12/n7/fig_tab/nmat3622_F1.html

http://provideocoalition.com/aadams/story/sony_the_non-technical_technical_guide_to_oled_technology/


Why organic transistors

Why Organic transistors?

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/sili2.html

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/germanium

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/arsenic

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/gallium

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/silicon

http://www.inorganicventures.com/element/oxygen


Organic transistors pros

Organic Transistors Pros:

  • Future material/production cost

  • Flexible & lightweight

  • Higher viewing angle

  • Brighter

  • Better Darker colors

  • Higher response time

http://www.engadget.com/2013/05/19/lg-5-inch-flexible-oled/

http://www.smh.com.au/digital-life/hometech/tvs-get-bigger-bolder-smarter-at-ces-20130109-2cg2a.html


Organic transistors cons

Organic Transistors Cons:

  • Present production cost

  • Color balance

  • Life expectancy

  • Water damage

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oled_display_alterung.jpg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nexus_one_screen_microscope.jpg


Questions

Questions?


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