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Monitoring and evaluation. Our Approach. What is monitoring and evaluation? Conceptual differences and terminologies. Approaches to Monitoring and Evaluation. Establishing M&E System. How to do Monitoring and Evaluation. What is monitoring?.

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Presentation Transcript
our approach
Our Approach
  • What is monitoring and evaluation? Conceptual differences and terminologies.
  • Approaches to Monitoring and Evaluation.
  • Establishing M&E System.
  • How to do Monitoring and Evaluation.
what is monitoring
What is monitoring?
  • Day-to-day follow up of activities during implementation to measure progress and identify deviations
  • Routine follow up to ensure activities are proceeding as planned and are on schedule
  • Routine assessment of activities and results
  • Answers the question, “what are we doing?”
why to monitor activities
Why to monitor activities?
  • Tracks inputs and outputs and compares them to plan
  • Identifies and addresses problems
  • Ensures effective use of resources
  • Ensures quality and learning to improve activities and services
  • Strengthens accountability
  • Program management tool
what is evaluation
What is evaluation?
  • It is a time-bound exercise that attempts to assess systematically and objectively the relevance, performance and success of ongoing and completed programmes and projects.
  • Designed specifically with intention to attribute changes to intervention itself
  • Answers the question, “what have we achieved and what impact have we made”
  • Evaluation commonly aims to determine the relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability of a programme or project.

Relevance: The degree to which the outputs, outcomes or goals of a programme remain valid and pertinent as originally planned or as subsequently modified owing to changing circumstances within the immediate context and external environment of that programme.

  • Efficiency: A measure of how economically or optimally inputs (financial, human, technical and material resources) are used to produce outputs.
  • Effectiveness: A measure of the extent to which a programme achieves its planned results (outputs, outcomes and goals).

Impact: Positive and negative long term effects on identifiable population groups produced by a development intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended. These effects can be economic, socio-cultural, institutional, environmental, technological or of other types.

  • Sustainability: Durability of programme results after the termination of the technical cooperation channelled through the programme.
  • Static sustainability – the continuous flow of the same benefits, set in motion by the completed programme, to the same target groups;
  • Dynamic sustainability – the use or adaptation of programme results to a different context or changing environment by the original target groups and/or other groups.
why evaluate activities
Why evaluate activities
  • Determines program effectiveness
  • Shows impact
  • Strengthens financial responsibility and accountability
  • Promotes a learning culture focused on service improvement
  • Promotes replication of successful interventions.
types of evaluation
Types of Evaluation
  • Ex-ante Evaluation: An evaluation that is performed before implementation of a development. intervention. Related term: appraisal.
  • Ex-post Evaluation: A type of summative evaluation of an intervention usually conducted after it has been completed.
  • External Evaluation: An evaluation conducted by individuals or entities free of control by those responsible for the design and implementation of the development intervention to be evaluated (synonym: independent evaluation).
  • Internal Evaluation: Evaluation of a development intervention conducted by a unit and /or individual/s reporting to the donor, partner, or implementing organization for the intervention.

Formative Evaluation: A type of process evaluation undertaken during programme implementation to furnish information that will guide programme improvement.

  • Impact Evaluation: A type of outcome evaluation that focuses on the broad, longer-term impact or results of a programme.
  • Joint Evaluation: An evaluation conducted with other partners, bilateral donors or international development banks.
  • Meta-evaluation: A type of evaluation that aggregates findings from a series of evaluations.

Process Evaluation: A type of evaluation that examines the extent to which a programme is operating as intended by assessing ongoing programme operations. A process evaluation helps programme managers identify what changes are needed in design, strategies and operations to improve performance.

  • Qualitative Evaluation: A type of evaluation that is primarily descriptive and interpretative, and may or may not lend itself to quantification.
  • Quantitative Evaluation: A type of evaluation involving the use of numerical measurement and data analysis based on statistical methods.

Summative Evaluation: A type of outcome and impact evaluation that assesses the overall effectiveness of a programme.

  • Thematic Evaluation: Evaluation of selected aspects or cross-cutting issues in different types of interventions.
confusing terms
Confusing terms
  • Audit
  • Appraisal
  • Inspection
m e tools
M&E Tools
  • Evaluating programme strategy and direction:Log-frames, Stakeholder Analysis
  • Evaluating programme management:Horizontal Evaluation; Appreciative Inquiry
  • Evaluating programme outputs: Evaluating academic articles and research reports; Evaluating websites; After Action Reviews
  • Evaluating outcomes and impacts:Outcome Mapping, Most Significant Change; Episode Studies.
m e tools1
M&E Tools

Following is a non – exhaustive list of M&E Tools:

  • Performance indicators
  • Formal surveys
  • Rapid appraisal methods
  • Participatory methods
  • Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis
  • Impact evaluation
1 performance indicators
1. Performance indicators
  • Performance indicators are measures of inputs, processes, outputs, outcomes, and impacts for development projects, programs, or strategies.
  • Uses:
    • Setting performance targets and assessing progress toward achieving them.
    • Identifying problems via an early warning system to allow corrective action to be taken.
  • Problems:
    • Poorly defined indicators are not good measures of success.
    • Tendency to define too many indicators, or those without accessible data sources,
    • Often a trade-off between picking the optimal or desired indicators and having to accept the indicators which can be measured using existing data.
how to make indicators
How To Make Indicators
  • Identify the problem situation you are trying to address.
  • Develop a vision for how you would like the problem areas to be/look. This will give you impact indicators.
  • Develop a process vision for how you want things to be achieved. This will give you process indicators.
  • Develop indicators for effectiveness.
  • Develop indicators for efficiency .
2 formal surveys
2- Formal Surveys
  • Formal surveys can be used to collect standardized information from a carefully selected sample of people or households.
  • Uses:
    • Providing baseline data against which the performance of the strategy, program, or project can be compared.
    • Comparing different groups at a given point in time.
    • Comparing changes over time in the same group.
    • Comparing actual conditions with the targets established in a program or project design.
2 formal surveys1
2- Formal Surveys
  • Problems:
    • With the exception of CWIQ, results are often not available for a long period of time.
    • The processing and analysis of data can be a major bottleneck for the larger surveys even where computers are available.
    • LSMS & household surveys are expensive & time-consuming.
    • Many kinds of information are difficult to obtain through formal interviews.
different types of survey
Different types of survey
  • Multi-Topic Household Survey (also known as Living Standards Measurement Survey—LSMS).
  • Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ).
  • Client Satisfaction (or Service Delivery) Survey.
  • Citizen Report Card.
3 rapid appraisal methods
3- Rapid appraisal methods
  • Rapid appraisal methods are quick, low-cost ways to gather the views and feedback of beneficiaries and other stakeholders, in order to respond to decision-makers’ needs for information.
  • Uses:
    • Providing rapid information for management decision-making, especially at the project or program level.
    • Providing qualitative understanding of complex socioeconomic changes, highly interactive social situations, or people’s values, motivations, and reactions.
    • Providing context and interpretation for quantitative data collected by more formal methods.
3 rapid appraisal methods1
3- Rapid appraisal methods
  • Problems:
    • Findings usually relate to specific communities or localities—thus difficult to generalize from findings.
    • Less valid, reliable, and credible than formal surveys.
4 rapid appraisal methods
4- Rapid appraisal methods
  • Key informant interview
  • Community group interview
  • Focus group discussion
  • Direct Observation
  • Mini surveys
4 participatory methods
4- Participatory methods
  • Participatory methods provide active involvement in decision-making for those with a stake in a project, program, or strategy and generate a sense of ownership in the M&E results and recommendations.
  • Uses:
    • Learning about local conditions and local people’s perspectives and priorities to design more responsive and sustainable interventions.
    • Evaluating a project, program, or policy.
    • Providing knowledge and skills to empower poor people.
4 participatory methods1
4- Participatory methods
  • Problems:
    • Sometimes regarded as less objective.
    • Time-consuming if key stakeholders are involved in a meaningful way.
    • Potential for domination and misuse by some stakeholders to further their own interests.
4 participatory methods2
4- Participatory methods
  • Participatory rural appraisal
  • Participatory monitoring and evaluation
5 cost benefit cost effectiveness analysis
5- Cost-benefit & cost-effectiveness analysis
  • Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis are tools for assessing whether or not the costs of an activity can be justified by the outcomes and impacts. Cost-benefit analysis measures both inputs and outputs in monetary terms. Cost-effectiveness analysis estimates inputs in monetary terms and outcomes in non-monetary quantitative terms.
  • Uses:
    • Informing decisions about the most efficient allocation of resources.
    • Identifying projects that offer the highest rate of return on investment.
5 cost benefit cost effectiveness analysis1
5- Cost-benefit & cost-effectiveness analysis
  • Problems:
    • Fairly technical, requiring adequate financial and human resources available.
    • Requisite data for cost-benefit calculations may not be available, and projected results may be highly dependent on assumptions made.
    • Results must be interpreted with care, particularly in projects where benefits are difficult to quantify.
6 impact evaluation
6 – Impact Evaluation
  • Impact evaluation is the systematic identification of the effects – positive or negative, intended or not – on individual households, institutions, and the environment caused by a given development activity such as a program or project.
  • Uses:
    • Measuring outcomes and impacts of an activity and distinguishing these from the influence of other, external factors.
    • Helping to clarify whether costs for an activity are justified.
    • Informing decisions on whether to expand, modify or eliminate projects, programs or policies.


  • Some approaches are very expensive and time-consuming
  • Reduced utility when decision-makers need information quickly.
  • Difficulties in identifying an appropriate counter-factual.