Objectives. Participants will learn how to address and manage multiple priorities in the business and finances of an academic department of emergency medicine in a mission-based manner. Participants will learn how to assess institutional priorities and align them with departmental priorities to ach
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1. Putting It All Together - Managing Multiple Priorities Brian J. Zink, MD
Professor and Chair,
Dept. of Emergency Medicine,
Alpert Medical School
2. Objectives Participants will learn how to address and manage multiple priorities in the business and finances of an academic department of emergency medicine in a mission-based manner.
Participants will learn how to assess institutional priorities and align them with departmental priorities to achieve success in the business of emergency medicine.
Participants will review and participate in discussions of case examples of competing or conflicting priorities and solutions to these situations.
3. What Business Are We In? We are not in the banking business.
We are not a corporation looking to increase shareholder value through enhanced stock price and lower cost of capital ratios.
We are not even ‘just’ a high quality healthcare delivery organization …
We are a part of a complex enterprise dedicated to pushing the margin … a balanced program of education, research and patient care.
David Bachrach – Physician Executive Coach, 2008
4. Sound Advice from the Coach The 3 Responsibilities of a Chair
1. Develop and Communicate the Mission, Vision and Values of the Department
2. Recruit, Develop and Retain High Quality Faculty Members
3. Be a Good Steward of Your Resources
David Bachrach – Physician Executive Coach, 2006
5. Mission - Possible? We have all heard – “No Margin, No Mission.”
But should a departmental mission be based and dependent on progressively increasing amounts of money?
If so, how will academic departments survive, much less thrive, when we face cuts to clinical, educational and research funding?
If your mission can’t guide you – what will?
6. Mission-Based Budgeting Introduced about a decade ago for medical education and academic medical centers.
ALL components of AMC mission are identified and assigned value and metrics (not just clinical).
Accounts for activity and quality of faculty effort in all areas – clinical, research, education and service.
Financial decisions based on a composite view. Non-revenue generating activities are on equal footing with revenue generating activities.
Mission-Based Budgeting: Removing a Graveyard, Robert T. Watson, MD, and Lynn J. Romrell, PhD Academic Medicine, Management Series: Mission-Based Management, 1999.
7. Beyond Budgeting Landmark article in 2003 by Jeremy Hope in Harvard Business Review, and subsequent book.
Application in a med school setting – Univ. of Michigan
Elger WR. Managing resources in a better way: a new financial management approach for the University of Michigan Medical School. Academic Medicine 2006; 81(4):301-305
Transparency and openness in governance and operations
Teams set up with high degree of accountability
Create goals with positive reinforcement
Continuous planning with all members of team
Controls and metrics – real time
Most academic EM departments are on a scale where “beyond budgeting” practices can be applied.
8. 12 Beyond Budgeting Principles (2011) Governance and transparency
1. Values - Bind people to a common cause; not a central plan
2. Governance - Govern through shared values and sound judgement; not detailed rules and regulations
3. Transparency - Make information open and transparent; don't restrict and control it
4. Teams - Organize around a seamless network of accountable teams; not centralized functions
5. Trust - Trust teams to regulate their performance; don't micro-manage them
6. Accountability - Base accountability on holistic criteria and peer reviews; not on hierarchical relationships
Goals and rewards
7. Goals - Encourage teams to set ambitious goals, don't turn goals into fixed contracts
8. Rewards – Base rewards on relative performance; not on fixed targets
Planning and controls
9. Planning - Make planning a continuous and inclusive process; not a top-down annual event
10. Coordination -Coordinate interactions dynamically; not through annual budgets
11. Resources -Make resources available just-in-time; not just-in-case
12. Controls - Base controls on fast, frequent feedback; not budget variances
9. Before Budgeting, Before Allocating… There is the big picture.
Positive organizational change
11. 11 Four Questions as You Craft Your Vision
12. Appreciative Inquiry A new paradigm for organizational development.
Pioneered in 1980’s by David Cooperrider at Case Western Reserve University.
Derived from experiences and observations at the Cleveland Clinic – physician leadership success.
Has been utilized with positive results by many businesses, organizations, the Navy, etc. to reshape the perspectives and approach of leaders and workers.
13. What is Appreciative Inquiry? “It is the discovery for the best in people, their organizations, and the relevant world around them. It is an art and practice of asking the unconditional positive questions that strengthen a system’s capacity to apprehend, anticipate and heighten positive potential. Instead of negation, criticism and spiraling diagnosis, there is discovery, dream, design and destiny. It works from accounts of the “positive change core”. AI links the energy of the positive core directly to any change agenda and changes never thought possible are suddenly and democratically mobilized.”
David Cooperrider, PhD., 2008
14. What is Appreciative Inquiry? Appreciative Inquiry is a collaborative and highly participative, system-wide approach to seeking, identifying, and enhancing the “life-giving forces” that are present when a system is performing optimally in human, economic, and organizational terms.
“AI is the ability (a kind of intelligence) to perceive the positive inherent generative potential in the present.” – David Cooperrider
16. A Non-Traditional Approach The abundance culture and philosophy.
A core of “positive energizers” who are free to do their work.
Investing in our People:
“Human relationships and leadership are more important than ever before. The speed and sophistication of technology and information have made human capital the key competitive advantage for most organizations.” Kim Cameron
17. The Power of Positive People The 5:1 positive rule for high performance teams.
Unless marriage partnerships, families, or work teams have a ratio of 5 positive comments to every 1 negative comment, the quality of the relationship deteriorates.
Try this out at home!
18. Positive energizers tend to enhance the work of others. People who interact with or are connected to energizers also perform better.
High performing firms have three times as many positive energizing networks as low performing firms. Positive Energizers
19. Positive Performers in the Work Place Externally focused, advocates.
Solution-finders, well-connected with good networks.
Willing to take on challenges in an innovative way. Adaptable.
All of these are core characteristics of …
20. High Performance Teams (source: Losada & Heaphy, 2003)
21. Approaches to Organizational Improvement Approach #1
What problems are we encountering?
What are the major obstacles to success?
How can we close the gap between our problems and effective solutions? Approach #2
What is working here?
What is the best we have ever done?
What are our peak experiences?
How can we close the gap between our highest aspirations and sustainable achievements?
22. Comparing Approaches to Improvement PROBLEM SOLVING
Identify problems or needs
Analyze symptoms & root causes
Generate alternative that address problems
Design interventions that address or solve problems
Our job is to overcome major problems. APPRECIATIVE CHANGE
Appreciating and Valuing:
Identify peak experiences
Identify elements of the best past successes
Identify what should be continued in the future
Designing a Destiny:
Design interventions that create an ideal future
Our job is to embrace and enable our highest potential.
23. The Heliotropic Effect Focusing on abundance gaps, compared to deficit gaps, leads to the organization turning toward the positive, instead of reacting to the negative.
24. Capitalizing on Strengths Identifying people’s strengths and building on them creates more benefit than identifying weaknesses and trying to correct them.
Managers who spend more time with their strongest performers achieved double the productivity.
In organizations where workers have a chance to “do what they do best everyday,” productivity is 1.5 X greater than in normal organizations.
People who are given feedback on their strengths are significantly more likely to feel highly engaged and to be more productive than people who are given feedback on their weaknesses.
Students who are given feedback on their talents have fewer days of absenteeism, less tardiness, and higher GPAs than students who get no feedback on their talents.
25. If you see your cup as half full, it may one day runneth over; if you see it as half empty, it never will.
26. Yeah, but… Aren’t most organizations fraught with problems?
Can any leader or manager afford to ignore difficulties?
Is a positive approach to change just a white-wash of serious challenges?
Won’t any organization fail if it doesn’t focus on its weaknesses and liabilities?
In light of major challenges faced by most organizations and leaders, what is the relevance of virtues and an abundance approach to change?
27. Why Don’t Positive Factors Get More Attention? A systematic bias exists in people - negative factors are more powerful and influential than positive factors.
More upset by losing $50 than elated by winning $50.
More affected by one traumatic or negative event than by one positive or happy event.
More affected emotionally & do more mental work from a single negative piece of feedback than from a single positive piece of feedback.
Therefore, the abundance model faces some stiff resistance.
28. Associations Between Organizational Virtuousness & Performance An abundance culture, virtuousness and positive dynamics are significantly and positively related to organizational performance.
A long term view is part of the abundance culture.
A study of the airline industry after 9/11.
29. Approach to Downsizing - Southwest
Despite losing $1 million per day in the weeks following the attacks, Southwest refused to lay off employees. CEO Jim Parker said: “Clearly we can’t continue to do this indefinitely, but we are willing to suffer some damage, even to our stock price, to protect the jobs of our people.”
30. Why Does Virtuousness Enhance Performance? Virtuousness has an amplifying effect.
Virtuousness perpetuates more virtuousness (psychological broadening & building effects).
Builds social capital (trust, information sharing, learning, etc.)
Fosters pro-social behavior (inherent disposition toward helping).
Virtuousness has a buffering effect.
Virtuousness serves a protective function against trauma.
Resiliency is developed (strengthening, limbering and replenishing).
Negative effects of downsizing are mitigated (psychological, emotional, psychological and social effects).
31. The Competing Values Framework
33. 33 Organizational Leadership Profile
35. Organizational Culture – Congruence, Strength and Type 35 There is no best or right culture, and balance is not necessarily advantageous.
Outcomes, strategies, culture and competencies should be congruent to achieve high performance.
Key metrics will be different, depending on the values and culture of your organization.
Culture change occurs through crisis, evolution, or leadership.
36. Achieving Spectacular Performance – Deviating from “Normal” Over time, most organizations tend to settle in to a normal, “fallen” state characterized by routines, conformity, hypocrisy, and with a palpable gap between what is and what might be.
“They became what they beheld.” William Blake
37. Organizational Culture Profiles An Example of Life Cycle Development in Organizational Cultures
38. Dept EM Culture Previous Compared to Today
39. 39 Competing Values Framework – for the Department Recognition that subgroups in the Department may have their own subculture.
Most team efforts will require “competency” in all 4 quadrants.
The tendency is to get “bottom heavy”, so we need to maintain our good qualities in the Collaborate and Create quadrants.
40. The Hedgehog Concept in the Social Sectors
42. Balance and the Long Term View Positive organizations with an “abundance theory” approach achieve long term success by:
Having well-developed MVV, with each member of the team “buying in” and helping to develop and achieve the MVV.
Encouraging high quality work and performance with clear expectations, but avoiding high stress or burn out.
Support balance in personal-professional lives of the team
Responding to periodic crises and change in an effective manner, but stay on track in MVV – long-term view.
Having plans for leadership growth and succession
44. Managing Multiple Priorities If you can use mission-based management, and positive organizational change approaches in your day-to-day departmental leadership, balancing and tending to multiple priorities becomes much less onerous.
Priorities and bubble up from the organization as high performance and opportunities.
45. ALIGNMENT OF COURSE we need to be aligned with our hospitals, academic medical centers, medical schools and community.
As the nexus, intersection, and enabler of much in health care and medical education, EMERGENCY MEDICINE is naturally positioned to be essential, at the table, and given a voice.
But, there is an ART to ALIGNMENT.
46. The Art of Alignment Possess Institutional Situational Awareness. What are the:
PRIORITIES (if articulated!)
Where Are the Win-Win’s?
What are We Both Good At? AI Approach
47. Case One: Clinical – What Are We? Your hospital system is forming a new outpatient network and wants to partner with your EM Department to open an Urgent Care with you providing the staffing. Initial analysis suggests that it would be financially neutral for the Dept to staff it with an EP/midlevel team.
Some members of your leadership team feel that urgent care is not really in the realm of EM, and are concerned that this initiative will distract from your educational and research activities.
The hospital system wants an answer in a week and will consider outsourcing the staffing to other EM groups or urgent care entities.
48. Managing Multiple Priorities First, take a deep breath and recite or chant your MISSION, VISION AND VALUES.
Assess: do you have enough objective information, data, points of view, and understanding of the options or paths you can follow? If not, take the time to get it.
Discuss: open dialogue; knowledge transparency; input from ALL stakeholders, not just your own people
Decide a Course: use the tools of positive organizational change as a guide; “dream the answer”; find the Win-Win
Communicate the Decision: reference MVV; explain but do not reopen
49. Case Two: Clinical v. Educational Needs You and your hospital are concerned about your ability to manage increasing ED volumes. Wait times are up, attending physicians are stressed. The hospital wants to provide three PA positions to help the situation, BUT in return they are requesting that you surrender two of your residency slots so they can expand their neurology and neurosurgery residencies.
Your residency director is apoplectic, but some attending physicians and nurses are supportive.
How do you manage this?
50. Case Three: Educational v. Clinical Needs Your Residency Director wants to nix the current Orthopedics rotation for your interns, citing poor education, lack of procedures, and resident dissatisfaction. An ED-based rotation is planned with some Orthopedics involvement.
The Orthopedics faculty members believe the EM Ortho rotation is strong, and are upset that EM wants to change it. They are making some veiled threats about responsiveness to consults in the ED if you do this. Orthopedics consults are already a problem, and you don’t want it to get worse.
How do you manage this?
51. Case Four: Research v. Clinical Faculty Your Department offers seed grants to stimulate research activities in junior faculty members.
Some clinically-oriented faculty members want you to use one half of the seed grant money each year to support clinical QA projects (non-research) for clinical faculty members. They argue that departmental revenue is almost totally derived from clinical activity, and they contribute the most to this, so they believe they should be able to get seed money as well.
How do you balance your research v. clinical priorities?
52. Case Five: Research Outlier Your leadership team has established two main research areas of focus and support within your department - cardiovascular emergencies and infectious diseases – and support goes to these areas.
A bright and energetic young faculty member has gone out on her own and secured a small research grant in interpersonal violence against women. She wants to grow in this area and requests more protected time so she can do the research and apply for a K Grant.
How do you manage this conflict between the departmental stated areas of focus, and this faculty member’s interests and desires?
53. Case Six: IP Opportunity An enterprising faculty member has developed some innovative, patented software for the ED and wants to form a small company to commercialize it. He is requesting that his commitment to the department be reduced to one shift a week while he starts up the company. With his intellectual property and patents, the venture could return a million dollars to the Department if it is successful.
Some of your Departmental leaders think this is a very risky proposition, and do not feel that a “special deal” should be made for this faculty member?
How you manage this opportunity while being fair and open?
54. Case Seven: International EM You have a successful and growing international program in Africa. More and more faculty are requesting time to go for month long clinical and educational experiences at the Africa site. The department is covering at least half the costs of these international experiences.
Some faculty members who do not do international work resent the fact that their schedules are altered to allow the international EM faculty to go to Africa, and feel that it is too costly and diverting funds from other areas.
How do you manage this tension between the IEM program and your “stay at home” faculty members?
55. What Will Be Different When We Go Home? After this SAEM Bootcamp, we hope that you have better sense of:
Cost accounting, Reimbursement
Funding for GME and Research
Strategic and Business Planning
And, an approach that emphasizes positive organizational change and appreciative inquiry.
So, MARCH on out of here and APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED!