Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
effects of rewards and incentives on intrinsic motivation of students. Action Research Project by Cassandra Caceres 7021T Fall 2010. Table of Contents. Abstract Introduction - Statement of the Problem 4
Action Research Project by Cassandra Caceres 7021T Fall 2010
Educators must not just inform children about the world, teach them to read, to write, and to do arithmetic. They must also help equip children with the skills needed to participate in adult interactions. This is not done by doling out response-contingent awards. In fact rewards do just the opposite. Response –contingent rewards establish a power hierarchy. Teachers have the power and they use it to get children to comply with their expectations in order to get rewards. Subservience does not develop responsible adults.
(Hall, 2009; Marshall 2005)
Alfie Kohn : Punished by Rewards
Albert Bandura : Self Efficay
“Rewards are every bit as controlling as punishments, even if they control by seduction. If reward recipients feel controlled it is likely that the experience will assume a punitive quality over the long run even though obtaining a reward itself is usually pleasurable (Kohn 1995).”
Self efficacy is defined as peoples beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influences that affect their lives. A strong sense of self efficacy enhances human accomplishment and personal well being ( Bandura 1994).”
Will administer the same three day Unit ( 3 lessons) to 2 general education Kindergarten classes at Public School X. Class A will receive the promise of a reward in advance as an incentive to cooperate with and participate in the lessons. Class B will receive no promise of a reward or prize only praise and acknowledgement and other non contingent rewards for will be shown for their cooperation. At the end of each lesson Class A will receive the reward which they are to be promised. At the end of the Unit both classes will be assigned a student centered assessment. At this time we will measure and compare the difference in the amount of cooperation received from Class and Class B.
Woods, R. (2008) When rewards and sanctions fail: a case study of a primary school rule-breaker. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education. Vol.21. 181-196. Doi: 10.1080/09518390701868979.
Docan, T. (2006) Positive and negative incentives in the classroom: an analysis of grading systems and student motivation. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Vol. 6. October 2006. 21-40.
Hoffman, L.L, Hutchinson, C.J., Reiss, E. (2009). On improving school climate: reducing reliance on rewards and punishment. International Journal of whole schooling. Vol. 5
Desiderio, M.F., Mullennix, C. (2005). Two behavior management systems, one classroom: can elementary students adapt? The Educational Forum. Vol. 69.383-391.
Marshall, M. (2005). Discipline without stress, punishments, or rewards. The Clearing House. Vol. 79. 51-54.
Angeleque Akin-Little. K., Eckert. T.L., Lovett, B.J., Little, S.G. (2004) Extrinsic reinforcement in the classroom: bribery or best practice. School Psychology Review. Vol. 33. 322-362.
Mader, Cynthia E. (2009). “I will never teach the old way again” :classroom management and external incentives. Theory Into Practice.v 48.
Hall, P.S. (2009) Beyond Rewards. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Vol. 18. 49-53.
Daddario, R., Anhalt, K., Barton, L.E. (2007). Differential reinforcement of other behavior applied classwide in a child care setting. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. Vol. 3. 342-348.
Skinner, C.H., Williams, R.L., Neddenriep, C.E. (2004). School Psychology Review. Vol.33. Retrieved from ERIC Database.
Gable, R.A., Hester, P.H., Rock, M.L., Hughes, K.G. (2009). Back to basics: rules, praise,
ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in school and clinic. Vol.44. no.4. 195-205. Doi: 10.1177/105345120832883
Kohn, A. Punished by rewards. 1993. New York,NY. Houghton Mifflin Company.
Peterson-Nelson, J.A., Caldarella, P., Young, K.R., Webb, N. (2008). Using peer praise
notes to increase the social involvements of withdrawn adolescents. Teaching
exceptional children. Vol. 41. No. 2. pp 6-13.
Moore-Partin, T.C., Robertson, R.E., Maggin, D. M., Oliver, R. M., Wheby, J.H. (2010).
Using teacher praise and opportunities to respond to promote appropriate student
behavior. Preventing school failure. Vol. 54. pp 172-178. Doi 1080/10459880903493179.
Storemont, M.A., Smith, S.C., Lewis, T.J. (2007). Teacher implementation of precorrection and praise statements in head start classrooms as a component of a program-wide system of positive behavior support. J Behavioral Educatio. Vol. 16. pp 280- 290. Doi: 10.1007/s10864-007 9040-3.
Trolinder, D.M, Choi, H., Proctor, T.B. (2004). Using delayed praise as a directive and its
effectiveness on on-task behavior. Journal of applied school psychology. Vol.
20 no.2 .pp 61-83.
Lannie, A. L., McCurdy, B. L.(2007) Preventing disruptive behavior in the urban
classroom: effects of the good behavior game on student and teacher
behavior. Education and Treatment of Children. v30. No 1 pp85-98.
Bandura, A. (1994) Self Efficay. Encyclopedia of human behavior. Vol. 4 pp 71-81.