Rewards and Motivation. Motivation - a nagging concern. What is the problem? Effort, performance, retention, loyalty, membership, commitment, trust, empowerment, participation, work design Extrinsic and intrinsic rewards Expectancy and Equity Rhetoric versus reality
Conscious calculation & instrumentality?
Take-it or leave it + "9-5" sub-optimisation
Tangible over non-tangible rewards
Organisational rationalisation of effort-reward relationship
Structural inflexibility of reward packages
Constructing and controlling the performance review and PRP system
Genuine involvement & participation
Delegation, reliance and confidence
Content theories - needs and factors:
Maslow, Alderfer, McClelland - Needs and satisfactions
Herzberg - hygiene and motivators, job redesign
McGregor, Likert et al - on being managed
Adams - Equity theory
Vroom, Lawler - Expectancy theory
Hackman & Oldham - job characteristics
Locke - Goal setting
Reinforcement theory (operant conditioning)
Positive (continuous, fixed and variable intervals/ratios)
Avoidance learning and punishment
more efficient perception of reality + comfortable with it
acceptance of self & others + social interest
problem-orientation, spontaneity and creativity
detachment - value privacy
autonomy - independence of culture & environment
resistance to enculturation
continued freshness of appreciation
mystic experience or oceanic feeling
interpersonal relations & democratic behaviour
sense of humour
assoc.. with Vroom & Lawler/Porter
Motivated to perform because of expectations relating to perceived payoffs from the performance.
Desirability of payoffs (valence), perception of expectancy + force of expression - intrinsic to the person.
Personal view of what is challenging or interesting, important to self + valuation of extrinsic payoffs - pay & material rewards
A robust explanatory, predictive model?
How the individual construes it all?
Job design & flexibility - matching people to jobs
MbO - defining expectations and feedback
Teams and semi-autonomous groups, empowerment
Concern for staff development, competencies and accreditation
Effort to refine and deliver “reward packages” that "motivate" - PRP
Constant organisational vigilance & sensitivity
A rewarding, supportive climate
Cultures that foster
confidence and identification (one-ness with the firm)
meaningful, practical commitment?