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Jerry Hembd Associate Professor & Director Northern Center for Community and Economic Development University of Wisconsin-Superior/Extension. Attraction Strategies: Recruiting the Right Things. 2007-2008 Building Community Series February 8, 2008. Attraction. Trends in Economic Development.

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Attraction strategies recruiting the right things l.jpg

Jerry Hembd

Associate Professor & Director

Northern Center for Community and Economic Development

University of Wisconsin-Superior/Extension

Attraction Strategies: Recruiting the Right Things

2007-2008 Building Community Series

February 8, 2008


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Attraction

Trends in Economic Development

Business and industry

Human talent and creativity

RetentionExpansion


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Competition in a Global Economy

Mobilityof tasks 

The World Is Flat

Mobility of talent 

The World Is Spiky


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Gross Cell Product (GCP) Map of U.S.

Source: Yale G-Econ Project.


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Gross Cell Product (GCP) of India

Source: Yale G-Econ Project.


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A Thriving Community

Starts with a Diverse High-performing Economy:

Service

Creative

Manufacturing

Source: Richard Florida Creativity Group, 2007.


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Who Works in the Creative Sector?

Workers in:

  • Technology and R&D

  • Arts and culture

  • Professional and managerial

  • Education and training


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How Do You Build the Creative Sector?

You need

People

People are the MAIN driver of economic development


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To Attract People a Community Needs:

  • Tolerance: A supportive environment for diverse self-expression

  • Technology: Accessible mechanisms for people to turn their talent into market or public goods

  • Territorial assets: Quality of place

Source: Richard Florida Creativity Group, 2007.


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The 4T Approach to Economic Development

Tolerance

Talent

Regional Growth and Prosperity

Territorial Assets

Source: Richard Florida Creativity Group, 2007.


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The Economic Impact of the Creative Sector

Percentage of Income Generated (wage & salary)

Percentage of Workforce

47%

$2 trillion

Creative Sector

30%

39 million employees

26%

33 million employees

44%

56 million employees

23%

$1.0 trillion

30%

$1.3 trillion

Service

Sector

Manufacturing Sector

SOURCE: Florida, Richard. The Flight of the Creative Class. HarperCollins, 2005


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1. Austin, TX

2. San Francisco, CA

3. Seattle, WA

4. Burlington, VT

5. Boston, MA

6. Raleigh-Durham, NC

7. Portland, OR

8. Madison, WI

9. Boise, ID

10. Minneapolis, MN

39. Chicago, IL

87. La Crosse, WI

121. Eau Claire, WI

124. Milwaukee, WI

135. Duluth-Superior, MN-WI

165. Green Bay, WI

217. Appleton, WI

262. Janesville, WI

266. Wausau, WI

269. Sheboygan, WI

Overall Rankings of Regions on the Creativity Index

SOURCE: Florida, Richard. The Rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books, 2004 (Paperback edition).


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Sweden

Japan

Finland

United States

Switzerland

Denmark

Iceland

Netherlands

Norway

Germany

Canada

Australia

Belgium

Israel

United Kingdom

South Korea

France

New Zealand

Austria

Ireland

Global Creativity Index

SOURCE: Florida, Richard. The Flight of the Creative Class. HarperCollins, 2005.


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Why Does the Creative Economy Matter?

  • Represents a change in thinking

  • Part of a broader community and economic development strategy

  • Complements manufacturing and industry – infusing products with knowledge and the commodification of ideas

  • Complements natural resource-based development – research, knowledge, and sustainability


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Why Does the Creative Economy Matter?

  • Complements tourism development – arts, crafts, and cultural and natural amenities

  • Complements workforce development

  • Complements entrepreneurship and innovation

  • Complements cluster development strategies

  • Helps you think about ways to make your community/state attractive to creative people

  • Points to synergies between artistic-cultural groups and technical-scientific-professional groups


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Additional Creative Economy Observations

  • Sometimes seen as elitist or exclusionary . . . everyone is creative

  • Tendency to take a limited view of creative industries and occupations

  • Building on lessons from previous assessments – Iowa, New England, Maine, and Montana (among others)

  • Needs to be seen as part of a broader strategy


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What is the Creative Economy?

Creative Industries

Creative Workforce

Creative Communities or Regions

Creative Economy


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The Creative Class – A Way to Examine the Creative Workforce

The Creative Class consists of a series of occupations that add economic value through their own creativity and knowledge.

Super Creative Core

Includes occupations in:

  • Computer and mathematical

  • Architecture and engineering

  • Life, physical, and social science

  • Education, training, and library

  • Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media

Creative Professionals

Includes occupations in:

  • Management

  • Business and financial operations

  • Legal

  • Healthcare practitioners and technical

  • High-end sales and sales management


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Thick labor markets

Access to a particular lifestyle (natural and cultural amenities)

Places for social interaction (third-spaces)

Diversity (openness or inclusion)

Authenticity and uniqueness

Identity and identification with place

What Are Common Characteristics of Creative Places?

Source: Richard Florida – TheRise of the Creative Class – pp 223 - 231


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The Quality of Place Factor

  • What’s there:the combination of built environment and the natural environment; a proper setting for pursuit of creative lives.

  • Who’s there: the diverse kinds of people, interacting and providing cues that anyone can plug into and make a life in that community.

  • What’s going on: the vibrancy of street life, café culture, arts, music and people engaging in outdoor activities - altogether a lot of active, exciting, creative endeavors.

Source: Richard Florida – TheRise of the Creative Class – pp 231 – 32.


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What Are Differences to Consider in Terms of Creative Places?

  • Urban versus rural

  • Young versus old

  • Educational attainment

  • High-tech versus craft and art

  • Mobility versus sense of place

  • Interplay of natural and cultural amenities

  • Role of tourism

  • Importance of retirement migration

  • Importance of second and seasonal homes


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What are Some Strategies for Building a Creative Economy? Places?

  • Find your creative economy niche and integrate it into your economic development strategies- Communities (and regions) should not expect to specialize in all areas of the creative economy

  • Think regionally– Leverage the assets of regional partners and neighbors

  • Work with centers of education – Schools, technical colleges, colleges, and universities help to develop the workforce, fulfill research and development needs, and serve as the centers where creative people convene

  • Recognize the importance of cultural and natural amenities – Especially in rural areas, it may be the remote and pristine setting itself which draws people to that place

  • Develop infrastructure – Can include transportation networks, incubators, communication systems, broadband access, affordable housing, hotel/motel accommodations, health care facilities, etc

Partially based on Barringer et al. The Creative Economy in Maine. 2004


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What Are Some Strategies for Building a Creative Economy? Places?

  • Promote networking – Can be facilitated by chambers, trade associations, art councils, government agencies, and stakeholder groups

  • Encourage entrepreneurship – Entrepreneurs are a key in the development of the creative economy

  • Develop leadership – The seeds for developing creative assets often come from the vision of either a single person or group of people. Continued leadership is necessary to ensure that initiatives maintain momentum

  • Resources – Leverage grants, angel investment networks, and federal funds

  • Time - Just like any economic development initiative, building creative economies takes time. Even with strong financial investment, persistence is a necessary component.

Partially based on Barringer et al. The Creative Economy in Maine. 2004


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Additional Strategies for Building the Places?Creative Economy

  • Educational considerations – “America needs a workforce that is flexible, adaptable and highly creative; and it needs an education system that can develop these qualities in everyone. . . I believe children should be taught dance every day of the week just as they are taught math every day.” Ken Robinson

  • Creative enterprise support – Designate a lead organization or a statewide one-stop shop resource center for specialized business skills and marketing assistance

  • Firm-level connections – Find ways to bring companies making products that depend on appearance and content together with creative individuals and enterprises

  • Artist relocation program – The Paducah example of attracting artists through a variety of incentives

  • Public, private, and philanthropic support for the arts


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Ten Strategies to Build Strong Economics and Social Connections through Arts and Culture

  • Create jobs

  • Stimulate trade through cultural tourism

  • Attract investment by creating live/work zones for artists

  • Diversify the local economy

  • Improve property and enhance value

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Ten Strategies to Build Strong Economics and Social Connections through Arts and Culture

  • Promote interaction in public space

  • Increase civic engagement through cultural celebration

  • Engage youth

  • Promote stewardship of place

  • Broaden participation in the civic agenda

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Create Jobs Connections through Arts and Culture: Nurture artists and small cultural organizations as businesses and microenterprises to increase employment

  • Form partnerships between community development corporations and artists and arts groups

  • Develop financial products and incentives to encourage investments in artist live/work spaces and community arts groups

  • Establish an arts incubator to provide space, management assistance, technology, and access to funding opportunities

  • Develop cultural activities to show off artwork and attract visitors

  • Develop a community of arts organizations representative of the area’s cultural diversity

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Stimulate trade through cultural tourism Connections through Arts and Culture: Create the right conditions for, and engage in, cultural tourism to bring new resources to the community

  • Reinforce and validate community identity – museum, visitor center, sense of ethnic focus and connectedness

  • Advertise community assets to increase tourism

  • Cultivate growing artistic community

  • Restore and re-occupy downtown storefronts

  • Establish or expand facilities such as theaters and art centers

  • Facilitate business and community collaboration

  • Provide small business support services

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Attract investment by creating live/work zones for artists Connections through Arts and Culture: Support artists and artist live/work spaces as anchors around which to build local economies

  • Create a downtown artist and historic district with live/work space

  • Provide incentives for property improvement and business and educational programs relocation

  • Convert factory space to artist studio, gallery, and museum space

  • Take advantage of vacant mixed-use properties and scenic riverfront, waterfront, and/or historic architecture

  • Jointly promote historic district and artists

  • Establish partnerships between government agencies and community groups

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Diversify the local economy Connections through Arts and Culture: Cluster arts organizations as retail anchors and activity generators to attract and support other enterprises

  • Develop a more diverse and interactive economy by attracting creative-sector businesses and generating local employment

  • Create an attractive environment for creative-economy entrepreneurs

  • Tap area resources such colleges/universities, high net-worth individuals, regional investors, cultural attractions, and existing tourism industries

  • Reposition area as a creative and distinct community

  • Coordinate retail businesses and arts activities to increase impact

  • Expand role of artists through business development support

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Improve property and enhance value Connections through Arts and Culture: Leverage the proximity of cultural amenities and the artists’ touch to improve property

  • Promote collaboration between arts, business, and city government

  • Offer relocation and financial incentives to attract artists

  • Invest in infrastructure (such as streetscaping) and cultural institutions

  • Combine and coordinate development of galleries, coffee shops, restaurants, visitor accommodations, and other services for visitors and tourists

  • Incorporate artist-made elements into housing construction and rehabbing

  • Develop public spaces that have strong aesthetic qualities and that bring people together

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Best Practices in Building Strong Economies through Arts and Culture

  • Build on existing assets and capacities . . . begin on a scale appropriate to community’s means and needs

  • Renew hope, engage the imagination, and create a sense of positive momentum that is both real and symbolic

  • Project and build upon a distinct identity that focuses the community’s cultural and natural amenities and taps artists and entrepreneurs that reflect and contribute to it

  • Build and rely upon mutually beneficial relations and exchanges across sectors of the community and among artists

  • Engage diverse populations, especially youth, in design and realization of projects, activities, and programs; include learning experiences for everyone

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Best Practices in Building Strong Economies through Arts and Culture

  • Utilize familiar public and private spaces that foster social interaction among neighbors, artists, visitors, and community partners

  • Include intermediaries in leadership roles who understand and can “translate” ideas and skills from one sector or culture to others

  • Help artists and entrepreneurs establish ownership, especially in under-utilized spaces that have capacity for living, work and mixed-used development

  • Incorporate multiple activities and policies that promote artists, cultural products, and community events based upon long-term impacts and benefits

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Promote interaction in public space Culture: Engage people in public spaces through public art and collective cultural experience

  • Celebrate creativity and cultural identity through public events (such as a recurring event with evocative underlying symbolism)

  • Support public art projects utilizing existing natural and/or built amenities

  • Use public art and storytelling to celebrate history and natural assets

  • Partner with social service, education, and civic groups to promote community volunteerism

  • Restore and cultivate natural elements with community help

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Increase civic participation through cultural celebrations Culture: Strengthen connections between neighbors through cultural celebrations and festivals

  • Involve the community in creating events, parades, etc., that celebrate diverse people, arts, history, and foods

  • Create original work that incorporates the issues, people, and cultures of the community

  • Encourage diversity of participants and artistic styles

  • Develop partnerships between cultural and community-based groups

  • Provide free public access to historical sites and contemporary art

  • Promote the community’s cultural resources

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Engage youth Culture: Include young people in civic affairs and enterprises through meaningful work and activity

  • Create an artistic apprentice program for youth, including at-risk youth

  • Provide and environment supportive of diverse forms and styles

  • Develop marketable skills and youth-adult relationships

  • Provide opportunities to have voice through exhibitions, commercial services, and public presentations

  • Provide responsible paid employment that promotes economic development and provides a springboard to postsecondary opportunities

  • Create stronger role of youth in community and civic affairs

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Promote stewardship of place Culture: Develop civic pride and responsibility through good “place making” and design practices

  • Facilitate community involvement and citizen experience in planning and employ good place-making design principles

  • Develop public space that reflects community interests

  • Nurture community identity

  • Use listening and observation as key organizing, design, and management strategies

  • Nurture and acknowledge indigenous leadership

  • Create an environment where culture is respected and where people can relate to each other across cultures through what they have in common

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Broaden participation in the civic agenda Culture: Expand involvement in civic issues and governance through community-centered arts and cultural practices

  • Involve artists in the community design process

  • Incorporate public art into the community

  • Develop facilities to fit the physical setting and preserve aesthetic, historic, and environmental resources

  • Build community consensus and ownership through the establishment of a local review committee

  • Use art to begin conversations about a divisive topic

  • Create understanding through a structured dialog process

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Best Practices in Using Arts and Culture to Build Social Connections

  • Build on the history and unique qualities of place, drawing on the community’s creative assets and cultural traditions

  • Begin small, employing visible aesthetic and symbolic actions that reframe the value of diversity, youth, and creativity to build momentum

  • Acknowledge everyone as “expert” with regard to their culture and community; exercise respect and include divergent viewpoints

  • Incorporate learning as an ongoing process to enable people to respectfully cross boundaries into unfamiliar cultures; embrace difference and controversy as opportunities

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Best Practices in Using Arts and Culture to Build Social Connections

  • Engage diverse stakeholders, especially youth, in visioning, planning, and sharing ongoing responsibilities; use participatory processes

  • Conduct events and activities in familiar public spaces understanding that people have different culturally based relationships to these spaces

  • Build organizational and cross-sector partnerships, working with existing groups of neighborhood residents and stakeholders

  • Value and elevate design and the planning process both as art forms and as the subject of public policy

  • Coordinate activities to complement other economic and civic projects that build upon economic and human assets

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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The Creative Economy in Small Cities and Rural Places Connections

  • Creative assets vary greatly from place to place

  • Strategies for resource leveraging also vary

  • Asset identification appears to be the essential first step

  • Sustaining the creative economy is a challenge

Source: Barringer, Richard, et al. “The Creative Economy in Maine: Measurement and Analysis.” Prepared for the New England Foundation for the Arts and Maine Arts Commission. Portland, ME: Maine Center for Business and Economic Research, New England Environmental Finance Center, University of Southern Maine, 2004.


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Urban Recommendations: ConnectionsCompeting for Talent

  • Make people the focus of economic development

  • Become a city where women and ethnically diverse young people can achieve their goals

  • Openness and engagement are key to rooting talent in place

  • Investing in higher education is important, but it won’t solve the problem

  • Vibrant urban neighborhoods are an economic asset

  • The economic importance of being different

Source: Cortright, Joseph. “The young and restless in a knowledge economy.” N.P.: Ceos for cities, December 2005.


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Vermont Recommendations to Support Growth of Creative Enterprises

  • Expand markets for Vermont’s innovative and creative goods and services

  • Unify and expand the promotion of Vermont’s cultural resources

  • Ensure the Vermont brand reflects and promotes the state’s creativity

  • Highlight Vermont’s creative and cultural life through special events

  • Develop a “Vermont Artists and Artisans” identity and marketing campaign

  • Provide technical support to emerging as well as established culturally-based businesses

  • Provide access to capital for emerging as well as established enterprises

Source: “Advancing Vermont’s Creative Economy.” Produced by Vermont Council on Rural Development, 2004.


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Maine Recommendations to Enhance the Role of Arts and Culture in the State Economy

  • Enhance the role of the arts and culture in tourism

  • Strengthen the creative cluster

  • Prepare the workforce

  • Encourage asset mapping

  • Develop regional approaches

  • Identify and cultivate leadership

  • Build and extend networks across sectors

Source: Barringer, Richard, et al. “The Creative Economy in Maine: Measurement and Analysis.” Prepared for the New England Foundation for the Arts and Maine Arts Commission. Portland, ME: Maine Center for Business and Economic Research, New England Environmental Finance Center, University of Southern Maine, 2004.


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State-level Initiatives to Strengthen Rural Economies through the Arts

  • Integrate the arts in state economic development planning, strategies, and programs

  • Use traditional entrepreneurship and economic development tools including incubators, start-up capital and training

  • Attract the arts by offering incentives, supporting business collaboration, and improving physical infrastructure

  • Use higher education systems in training and business development efforts

  • Integrate arts into planning and marketing to build sustainable tourism

  • Invest in cultural resources for rural areas

  • Identify, obtain, and creatively use the wide variety of federal resources

Source: National Governors Association. Strengthening Rural Economics through the Arts. Issue Brief. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, August 2005.


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The Creative Enterprise Cluster through the Arts

  • People and companies whose product is art or design (e.g., potters, writers, jewelers, and web page designers)

  • Companies in which art or design provides the distinguishing feature or competitive advantage of a product or service (e.g., designer home furnishings, high fashion clothing or CDs)

  • Companies with services that are defined by art or design (e.g., advertising agencies, landscapers and architects)

  • Companies that sell, supply, or contribute to art or design-dependent products or services (e.g., galleries, craft and supply distributors, and arts councils, arts or craft schools and art foundries)

Source: Rosenfeld, Stuart. “Crafting a New Rural Development Strategy.” Economic Development America (Summer 2004): 11-13.


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Public Policies and Private Practices for Creative Enterprise Clusters

  • Add art and design services to the Manufacturing Extension Partnership and Cooperative Extension

  • Designate a lead Small Business Development Center for creative enterprises

  • Support networks and networking

  • Bundle arts and design with entertainment and cultural tourism

  • Embed art and design in education

  • Make greater use of community colleges

Source: Rosenfeld, Stuart. “Crafting a New Rural Development Strategy.” Economic Development America (Summer 2004): 11-13.


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Steps for Creative Community Builders Enterprise Clusters

  • Assess your situation and goals

  • Identify and recruit effective partners

  • Map values, strengths, assets, and history

  • Focus on your key asset, vision, identity, and core strategies

  • Craft a plan that brings the identity to life

  • Secure funding, policy support, and media coverage

Source: Borrup, Tom, with Partners for Livable Communities. The Creative Community Builder’s Handbook. St. Paul, MN: Fieldstone Alliance Publishing Center, 2006.


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Questions? Enterprise Clusters


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For More Information Enterprise Clusters

Jerry Hembd

Northern Center for Community and Economic DevelopmentUniversity of Wisconsin-Superior/ExtensionBelknap & Catlin, PO Box 2000 Superior, Wisconsin 54880 Web: www.uwsuper.edu/ncced

Phone 715-394-8208 E-mail: [email protected]


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