Sensor and readout status of the pixel detector
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Sensor and Readout Status of the PIXEL Detector. Talk Structure. Sensors Readout Development and Prototyping with test results. IPHC Functional Sensor Development. All sensor families:. 30 x 30 µm pixels CMOS technology Full Reticule = 640 x 640 pixel array.

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Talk structure
Talk Structure

  • Sensors

  • Readout

  • Development and Prototyping with test results

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Iphc functional sensor development
IPHC Functional Sensor Development

All sensor families:

  • 30 x 30 µm pixels

  • CMOS technology

  • Full Reticule = 640 x 640 pixel array

Mimostar 2 => full functionality 1/25 reticule, 1.7 µs integration time (1 [email protected] MHz clk), analog output. (in hand and tested)

Phase-1 and Ultimate sensors => digital output (in development)

Data Processing in RDO and on chip by generation of sensor.

The RDO system design evolves with the sensor generation.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Hft pixel readout functional goals
HFT PIXEL Readout Functional Goals

  • Triggered detector system fitting into existing STAR infrastructure (Trigger, DAQ, etc.)

  • Deliver full frame events to STAR DAQ for event building at approximately the same rate as the TPC (1 KHz for DAQ1000).

  • Reduce the total data rate of the detector to a manageable level (< TPC rate).

  • Reliable, robust, cost effective, etc.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Mimostar data flow
Mimostar Data Flow

System Goal:

10 Sensors / Ladder

33 Ladders

135M Pixel

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Raster scan

Data examined

Per clock cycle

Implemented in FPGA on daughter card

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Cluster finder efficiency
Cluster Finder Efficiency

Real Data taken with MIMOSTAR2 detectors by IPHC

Traditional ADC Sum Method

2 Threshold FPGA method

Cut on the central pixel goes from 14 to 8 ADC counts (left to right) every 1 ADC. 1 ADC = 7.1 e-.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Pixel data rates 1 khz
PIXEL Data Rates (1 KHz)

  • Rate @ R1 (2.5cm) = 52.9 / cm2

  • Rate @ R2 (6.5cm) = 10.75 / cm2

  • Rate @ R3 (7.5cm) = 8.76 / cm2 (at L = 1027)

  • Average event size = 114 KB

  • Data Rate = 114 MB/sec at 1KHz

  • 33 fibers

  • 33 RORC (6 readout PCs)

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Prototype 3 sensor telescope
Prototype 3 Sensor Telescope

We tested the functionality of a prototype MIMOSTAR2 detector at the LBNL ALS and then in the environment at STAR during the last three weeks of the 2006-2007 run at RHIC. Our goal was to gather information on:

  • Charged particle environment near the interaction region in STAR.

  • Performance of our cluster finding algorithm.

  • Performance of the MIMOSTAR2 sensors.

  • Functionality of our interfaces to the other STAR subsystems.

  • Performance of our hardware / firmware as a system.

  • The noise environment in the area in which we expect to put the final PIXEL detector.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Telescope electronics rdo
Telescope Electronics / RDO

MimoStar2 chips on kapton cables




Control PC (Win)


Acquisition Server (Linux)

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int


Telescope sensors and mechanical housing
Telescope Sensors and Mechanical Housing

3 MIMOSTAR2 chips mounted as close together as reasonably possible on low mass kapton cables in a telescope configuration.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Mimostar2 telescope test at the als
Mimostar2 Telescope test at the ALS

1.2 GeV electrons at the ALS Booster Test Facility


Due to un-terminated DAC pads on the sensor, our noise level was double the value achieved under ideal conditions at IPHC in France.

IPHC =>11-15 electrons at 30º C

LBL => 30-35 electrons at 28º C

MPV = 49 (Standard) and 43 (Radtol) ADC counts at ~230 electrons

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Efficiency and accidental rates for als test
Efficiency and Accidental rates for ALS test

Merged cluster data – typically 2-3 hits per cluster.

Increased noise in sensors results in reduced performance.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Telescope installed at star
Telescope Installed at STAR

Magnet Pole Tip

Beam Pipe

Electronics Box

Telescope head – 1.45 m from interaction point just below beam pipe.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Star prototype run results
STAR Prototype Run Results

Typical CDS full frame event in one sensor. Clusters are clearly visible above the noise level.

  • Measured charged particle flux was ~ 3.9 merged clusters per sensor (1.7 µs integration time, L=81026 cm-2s-1).

  • Noise level of system in the STAR environment was 7.48 ADC counts, comparable to laboratory and ALS measurements.

  • Prototype system integrated with STAR Trigger, slow control and run control sub-systems. Events delivered to DAQ standard RDO PC.

  • TLD measured dose at head position, 325 rad over running time. This scales to an integrated dose of several hundred Krad / run.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Summary for beam runs
Summary for beam runs

  • RDO system with data sparsification implemented and functional for Mimostar2 sensors.

  • Prototype system characterized, but with increased noise.

  • Fully functioning interfaces between our prototype detector and STAR detector infrastructure.

  • Completed measurements of detector environment at STAR including induced electronic noise.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int

Some tasks and milestones for the next year
Some tasks and milestones for the next year

  • August 2008 – delivery of Phase-1 sensors from the foundry.

  • Develop new generation RDO system based on Virtex-5 FPGA.

  • Testing of Mimostar2, Mimostar3 and Mimosa22e sensors.

  • Prototype low radiation length cable.

Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int


Leo Greiner 2007-09-11 TC_Int