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Absolutism. Phillip II of Spain. Married to Mary Tudor of England, but was not named King in England Ruthless, vain, and ambitious leader Devout Catholic

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Phillip ii of spain

Phillip II of Spain

  • Married to Mary Tudor of England, but was not named King in England

  • Ruthless, vain, and ambitious leader

  • Devout Catholic

  • With the Pope’s full support, Phillip began the Spanish Inquisition to force Jews and Muslims to become Catholic. He prevented Protestantism from entering into Spain


  • Phillip extended his power to the New World, the Philipines (hence the name) and to the Netherlands

  • On a serious gamble, Phillip spends most of his money and military strength on an attempt to invade England in 1588 to depose Elizabeth

  • He failed, causing Spain to lose its world power

Mary tudor

Mary Tudor

  • Concerned with converting England back to Catholicism by force

  • Burned 300 Protestant Church Leaders alive: Bloody Mary

  • Married to Phillip II of Spain.

  • Phillip used Mary to fund and supply his war against the Netherlands

  • England is left penniless

Elizabeth tudor

Elizabeth Tudor

  • Unmarried Protestant

  • Her goal is to build England into a powerful nation

  • She wants to balance the powers in Europe by taking power from Spain

  • Elizabeth hires Sea Dogs = privateers, or pirates, hired to rob Spanish Gold ships returning from America.

  • Sends aid to protestants in the Netherlands who are fighting for Independence from Spain.

  • She defeats the Spanish Armada in 1588 which was sent by Phillip to destroy Elizabeth.

  • Elizabeth sends colonists to Virginia to challenge Spain’s claim to America

King frederick of prussia

King Frederick of Prussia

  • Crowned himself King

  • To indicate that his royalty was limited to just Prussia he was forced to call himself “King in Prussia” instead of “King of Prussia”.

  • Founded 3 major Academies or Universities

  • Huge patron of the arts

Leopold i

Leopold I

  • Holy Roman Emperor

  • King of Hungary and Bohemia

  • He was a man of industry and education

  • He showed political ability

  • He regarded himself as an absolute sovereign

Charles i of england

Charles I of England

  • King Charles I had many religious conflicts.

  • Failed to successfully aid protestant forces during the Thirty Years War. He married a Roman Catholic princess.

  • The English Civil War with him in power. Afterward, in 1649, he was executed. It was a battle between a representative government - parliament - of the people

  • England proved it would not tolerate an absolute ruler. The divine right ruler (Charles I) lost - - and was beheaded to prevent any return to the absolute rule idea.

Ivan the great

Ivan the Great

  • Longest ruler of Russia

  • Unified Russia while expanding its boundaries 3x

  • Ended the reign of the Golden Horde (Monguls) by standing up and not giving in to anymore of their demands

  • He was the first to use the term czar



  • Michael Romanov was the first Czar

  • Succeeded by Peter the Great

    • Caused lots of bloodshed and torture

  • The Romanovs ruled for over 300 years

  • Ended in 1917 when the people were unhappy with Czar Nicholas II

  • The Bolsheviks ordered the killing of the entire royal family, ending their reign

Louis xiv

Louis XIV

  • Took the throne at 5 yrs, but Cardinal Mazarin ruled until Louis turned 23

  • Gained the respect of the people from giving them laws and rules that had been lacking during the war times

  • Brought the treasury out of bankruptcy

  • He was a strict Catholic, revoking the Edict of Nantes and persecuting many Protestants

  • Relocated the palace to Versailles


Young Louis XIV


The Bourbon Family Crest


Versailles Statistics

  • 2,000 acres of grounds

  • 12 miles of roads

  • 27 miles of trellises

  • 200,000 trees

  • 210,000 flowers planted every year

  • 80 miles of rows of trees

  • 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal

  • 12 miles of enclosing walls

  • 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles

  • 21 miles of water conduits

  • 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed

  • 26 acres of roof

  • 51,210 square meters of floors

  • 2,153 windows

  • 700 rooms

  • 67 staircases

  • 6,000 paintings

  • 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings

  • 2,100 sculptures

  • 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art

  • 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden


Louis XIII’s Old Chateau


Versailles Today


Fountains, Fountains, and More Fountains!


And More Fountains!


And More Fountains!


And Even More Fountains!!!


Hall ofMirrors


The King’s Bed

The Queen’s Bed


Louis XIV’s Chapel


Louis XIV’s Chapel Altarpiece

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