Absolutism
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 71

Absolutism PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 161 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Absolutism. Absolutism. Absolutism : -Middle Ages/renaissance-Struggle for more power -Monarchs (Kings/Queens) wanted to have absolute (all) power. . Absolutism. Divine Right : “God Given” -Monarchs would claim to be God’s representative on earth

Download Presentation

Absolutism

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Absolutism

Absolutism


Absolutism1

Absolutism

Absolutism:

-Middle Ages/renaissance-Struggle for more power

-Monarchs (Kings/Queens) wanted to have absolute (all) power.


Absolutism2

Absolutism

Divine Right: “God Given”

-Monarchs would claim to be God’s representative on earth

- Kings were anointed with holy water at their coronations.

-Those that rebelled against the Monarch would be considered defying and rebelling against God’s will


Absolutism3

Absolutism

Bourbons of France

How do they come to power?

French Civil war

Huguenots VS. Catholics

(Calvinists)


Absolutism4

Absolutism

History.wisc.edu


Absolutism5

Absolutism

Marlowe-society.org

Henry of Navarre

(1589-1610)

“Good King Henry”

-Henry IV of France

-First Bourbon king

-Instituted the Edict of Nantes in 1598

-Religious toleration of the Huguenots


Absolutism6

Absolutism

Louis XIII

(1610-1643)

-Son of Henry IV

“Fils de France

Dauphin of France”

-Maria de Medici his mother (Catholic) serves as his regent

-He is only 9 years-old when he becomes king after Father is killed


Absolutism7

Absolutism

Galleryhistoricalfigures.com

Cardinal Richelieu

“Armand Jean du Plessis“ - cardinal-duc de Richelieu et de Fronsac“

-Chief Minister for Louis XIII in 1624.

(Louis became early example of Absolute Monarch)

-He is influential during this time because he controls the bureaucrats.


Absolutism8

Absolutism

Policies of Louis XIII (Cardinal Richelieu)

Sale of Office

Anyone who worked for the king the position or office had to be purchased. Paulette—a fee paid to keep the office holder’s position. It would remain in his family when he died.

Nobles

Reduced their influence, gave them positions as diplomats, soldiers and officials

Huguenots

Ended their political independence and advances/loss of privileges


Absolutism9

Absolutism

Policies of Louis XIII (Cardinal Richelieu)

Intendants: (Sub delegates)

-Royal representatives governing each district in France

-Controlled almost every aspect of life inside of their respected district.

Purpose:

-Recruited people for the army

-Supervised tax collections, regulated Businesses

-Enforced the kings decrees (Watch for rebellion)

-Disliked by peasants and threatened the power of the nobles


Absolutism10

Absolutism

Policies of Louis XIII (Cardinal Richelieu)

-Increased French Influence in the 30 years war. Aided Protestant Princes…to keep Holy Roman Emperor (Catholic) from becoming a major threat to the French.

-Promoted Textile industry and shipbuilding. Established Private Trading companies between France-colonies


Absolutism11

Absolutism

Who is this person?

What do you think is going on in this painting?

What is the message of this painting?

Why do you think it was painted?

Architecturalwatercolors.blogspot.com


Absolutism12

Absolutism

Louis XIV (1643-1715)

“Grand Monarch” (Grand Monarque)

He was known as the Sun King. He represented this by having coins show the rays of sun falling onto Louis and then to his subjects. This symbolized warmth and life given by the monarch.

Also was considered to be the “Center of the French Universe”, with his Glitter of lifestyle.

5 Year old King; Mother was Anne of Austria (Ruled France until Louis was of age).

Architecturalwatercolors.blogspot.com


Absolutism13

Absolutism

-France became the greatest Power in Europe during his reign

-Imitated by many

“Imitation is considered the greatest form of flattery”


Absolutism14

Absolutism

Versailles Palace

A-gc.com


Absolutism15

Absolutism

Versailles Palace


Absolutism16

Absolutism

Versailles Palace

-Hunting Lodge of Louis XIII.

-Louis XIV’s court by 1680s.

-Versailles Palace was also XIV’s home.

-Located about 10 miles outside of Paris.

-It was the largest building of its day.


Absolutism17

Absolutism

Louis XIV’s Absolutist Government

-The use of armed force

-More stricter intendents

-Formulation and execution of laws

-Collection and expenditure of revenue, taxation

-Kept control of important nobles by requiring constant prescience at the court in Versailles

(Lavish entertainment brought in to keep everyone amused) Most loyal were given honors and high office jobs.


Absolutism18

Absolutism

Jean Baptist Colbert: Financial Advisor. Utilized the policy of…

-Mercantilism: (colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country.) A nation’s wealth was measured in its gold and silver, more exports than imports.

-Mercantilism affected the colonies such as New France (Canada) started by Henry IV


Absolutism19

Absolutism

Domestic Policy:

Revoked the Edict of Nantes from 1685

-why?-

To promote unity however, it had economic consequences.

(Heavy Huguenot persecution)

Result: 1 million Huguenots either leave the country or convert to Catholicism.


Absolutism20

Absolutism

Hapsburgs of Germany and Spain

Charles VFerdinand+Isabella

Holy Roman Joanna

Emperor 1519 Archduke Philip of Austria

King of Spain

(1516-1556)

grandparents

daughter

Son

+


Absolutism21

Absolutism

Hapsburgs of Germany and Spain


Absolutism22

Absolutism

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V

(1516-1556 Spain

1519-1558 HRE)

-Declared Martin Luther an Outlaw (Diet of Worms)

-Supporter and a force behind Counter Reformation

-Fought wars with France over territory in Italy

-Illness and weariness forced him to vacate the Crowns.

Artrenewal.org


Absolutism23

Absolutism

King Philip II of Spain

(1556-1598)

Charles V’s son

-Married Queen Mary I (England)

Henry VIII’s daughter

-Supports Catholics in

France against Henry IV

-Defeats Muslim (Ottoman navy) invasion at Lepanto

in 1571

-Defeated by the English

in 1588 invasion of England…

Historicalportraits.com


Absolutism24

Absolutism

King Philip II of Spain

And the Spanish Invincible Armada, La Armada Grande

-Originally friends with Elizabeth I (England) (Sister of Mary I)

-He facilitated her accession and

supported her against the claims of

Mary Stuart (Queen of the Scots)

-He intervened powerfully in her favor (Elizabeth) to prevent French aid from being sent to Scotland.

-With the upswing of Protestantism

relations between England and Spain

begin to turn bad

Historicalportraits.com


Absolutism25

Absolutism

King Philip II of Spain

And the Spanish Invincible Armada, La Armada Grande

So, What Went Wrong?

—Spanish ships were robbed with impunity in the English channel

—The Protestant groups in the Netherlands started to rebel in 1566

which were supported by England. Spain supported Catholics in

Netherlands.

—In 1568, a Spanish ship docked in Plymouth and filled with pay for

the Spanish army in Flanders was seized by the English.


Absolutism26

Absolutism

King Philip II of Spain VS. Queen Elizabeth I

– In the Spring of 1587, Francis Drake cruised off the coast of Spain and contrary to Elizabeth’s wishes attacked Spanish shipping, burnt the half-finished and unmanned ships at Cadiz and did enormous damage to the Spanish navy.

—The Armada left Lisbon on May 20, 1588. It consisted of 130 ships and 30, 493 men but half of the ships were transports and two-thirds of the men were soldiers. It went to the harbor of Carunna for retrofitting.

—The Armada sailed out for Flanders on July 12.

—One ship was reported captured three sank and four or five ran ashore


Absolutism27

Absolutism

Peter Alexowitz (the Great)

(Czar 1682-1725)

-Curious about other lands at a young age

-Would travel in disguise to Western Europe to learn about the advancements made and return with them to Russia.

-Would impose new ways that went against tradition


Absolutism28

Absolutism


The english civil war 1642 1646 1648 1649 1649 1651

The English Civil War

(1642-1646, 1648-1649, 1649-1651)

Absolutism


English civil war

English Civil War

August 1642-September 1649

Parliamentarians Vs. Royalists

“Roundheads” “Cavaliers”

Over 80,000 killed


English civil war1

English Civil War

Tudorhistory.org

English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Edward VI—Henry’s 10 year old son inherited the throne. Advisors were Protestants. Thomas Cranmer was using the Book of Common Prayer. Protestant service while keeping Catholic Doctrine.

http://tudorhistory.org/edward/


English civil war2

English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Mary Tudor wants to return England to Catholic faith. She is the younger sister of Henry VIII

http://tudorhistory.org/mary/


English civil war3

English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) (r. 1558-1603)

She was the last of the Tudors. She wasn’t married. Her Minister Robert Cecil enabled the King of Scotland, James Stuart to succeed her.

http://tudorhistory.org/elizabeth/

Englishhistory.net


English civil war4

English Civil War

Previous Conditions

Mary Queen of Scots

A Catholic, hoped she would inherit the throne.

Elizabeth had Mary executed in 1587. She was the great grand niece of Henry VIII.

http://englishhistory.net/tudor/relative/maryqosbiography.html

Englishhistory.net


English civil war5

English Civil War

Causes

The Gentry

--Newest group in society looking for respectability.

--Maintained agricultural holdings and crown offices.

--Three-quarters of the House of Commons were gentry, well educated and could approve all taxation.


English civil war6

English Civil War

Causes con’t

The Debt

The war with Spain in 1588

It created an economic depression

John Stuart, King of Scotland and England left with a 400,000 debt.


English civil war7

English Civil War

Causes con’t

The Puritans

Puritans were English Calvinists. They believed the Protestant Anglican church was too close to Roman Catholicism. By 1639, the Calvinist Scots took up arms rather than accept the Anglican prayer book.


English civil war8

English Civil War

Causes con’t

King James I (r. 1603-1625)

James VI; King of Scotland.

He was not well liked by the people of England.

He was a foreigner, Scottish and an absolutist.

Short on Money; financial restraints


English civil war9

English Civil War

History.wisc.edu

The Parliament showed their dislike of James I in a number of ways:

1. Forced his ministers

to resign

2. blocked the union of

England and Scotland

3. Only Anglicans allowed

to hold public office


English civil war10

English Civil War

Quick Review:

-Queen Elizabeth I dies 1603: End of Tudor Family Reign

-No children; a cousin was appointed the Crown of England

-Cousin was James VI of Scotland

(James I of England)

-Hated man (Scottish, constant conflict and tension between Parliament and himself (Little respect for Parliament)


English civil war11

English Civil War

Charles I (r. 1625-1649)

2nd Son of James I

-Continued to have tensions with Parliament

-Seeked out goals his father accomplished

-continued on with absolutist, divine right of rule for England


English civil war12

English Civil War

During the Parliament of 1628-1629,

He agrees to Petition of Right

which grants more rights to the

People:

End to imprisonment w/o cause

End to martial law in peacetime

End to billeting of troops among

civilians

Taxation w/o consent of

Parliament (James VI would constantly do this, Petition would limit his son from doing it ever again.

http://www.hrp.org.uk/HamptonCourtPalace/escape

Sites.psu.edu


English civil war13

English Civil War

English Civil War

Causes of the English Civil War

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3h_RyFEV0M


English civil war14

English Civil War

-Charles I agrees to the Petition of Right but breaks his word on all the issues.

-He orders Parliament dissolved until 1640due to breaking word on Petition of Rights as well as the discovery of the Star Chamber: A secret court were Charles would arrested and have people tried without Parliament’s knowledge.

-11 years Charles ruled without any type of check and balance. Absolute rule.

-Would often reactivate old taxation laws and fines/fees to keep money flow into England (shipping taxes, Knighthood fees)


English civil war15

English Civil War

By 1639, the Calvinist Scots took up arms rather than accept the Anglican prayer book.

By 1640, the Scots occupy most of northern England. Charles I then approaches Parliament to raise money to fight the Scots.

Charles I starts the Long Parliament which lasts for 13 years.


English civil war16

English Civil War

English Civil War starts in 1642


Absolutism

Oliver Cromwell and his new Model Army defeat the Royalists in 1646.


English civil war17

English Civil War

Second English Civil War 1648-1649

-Two years after the defeat in the First Civil War, Charles I took up arms and attempted to use force to retake what was his

-Political agreement could not be reached

-Despite being captive, secret agreements between Charles and the Scots lead to the Scots invading England again. Turned away shortly after


English civil war18

English Civil War

What happens to Charles I?

-Parliament begins decision to end the reign of Charles I

He was put on Trial for Treason in 1649

He was later found guilty, and convicted


English civil war19

English Civil War

What happens to Charles I?

Punishment? Executed

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IPmSR--BktE


English civil war20

English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

-Ruled England from 1649 to 1660 (Interregnum)

-1649-1651 Continued to regain English control over Ireland, and Scotland

-England is a republic at this time (Commonwealth)

-Becomes a dictator in 1654: “Lord protector of England”


English civil war21

English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

-Dissolved Parliament twice due to lack of reforms.

-Ends the Long Parliament in 1653 (started by Charles I)

offers him the crown in 1656 but refused

-1657 England’s first constitution “Instrument of England” is written, only to be scrapped

-


English civil war22

English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

-Killed many Irish over the belief that many English settlers were killed in Ireland in 1641, **Still a horror filled memory to this day**

-Allowed all types of religion to practice except Catholicism

-Banned all type of criticism via publication

-Shut down all types of entertainment/amusement


English civil war23

English Civil War

Oliver Cromwell

-Clamped down on (limited) the celebration of Christmas and other Saint and Holy days during his reign

-Dies of a Malarial-type of disease

-His son alienated both the army and Parliament in effort to succeed his father


English civil war24

English Civil War

Richard Cromwell

-Third (eldest) surviving Son of Oliver

-Served nine month reign (1658-1659)

-Controversy as to whether or not Oliver named him successor, or his Son in Law Charles Fleetwood


English civil war25

English Civil War

Richard Cromwell

-Left with £2 million Debt

-questioned as capable leader due to lack of military experience

-No strength/unity between the Army, Parliament, and Cromwell

-Could not control either side

-Parliament forces Cromwell to resign, appoints new Council to govern England


English civil war26

English Civil War

Restoration

-Since 1658 (Cromwell’s death) Parliament once again had the most power-But English people still wanted a king to rule.

Charles II (r. 1660-1685)

Charles I son

Protestant

He forms a limited monarchy,(the king and Parliament share power)


English civil war27

English Civil War

Restoration

-Most of Cromwell’s actions are reversed (Amusement/entertainment)

-Things were less severe in comparison to Cromwell’s reign

Habeas Corpus Act passed by Parliament

(A person who was arrested could obtain an order demanding to be taken in front of a judge within a certain amount of time. Judge would decide whether person is tried for crime or released)


English civil war28

English Civil War

-After his death James II (1633-1701), Charles I second son and younger brother of Charles II

-Rules from 1685-1688.

He is Catholic and his second wife has a son who is also Catholic.

-Parliament dislikes him but nevertheless supports him.


English civil war29

English Civil War

-Despite the Catholic faith, his daughters married protestant princes, parliament accepts and believes the crown will continue to be upheld by Protestant faith

HOWEVERRR……..

-A catholic son was born in 1688-trumping the line of age to be the heir successor to the throne


English civil war30

English Civil War

Restoration

Why is this an issue and how is it resolved?

Glorious Revolution 1688

No Fighting or Bloodshed needed

How so?

-Parliament invites older Protestant Daughter Mary and husband to rule England


English civil war31

English Civil War

Restoration

William and Mary

William of Orange from the Netherlands and

Mary, James’s Protestant daughter accept the offer to take up the crown and rule England.

William, with army, march on London. James II flees to France.

William III and Mary II officially begin rule in 1689


English civil war32

English Civil War

Restoration

William and Mary

William of Orange from the Netherlands and

Mary, James’s Protestant daughter accept the offer to take up the crown and rule England.

William, with army, march on London. James II flees to France.

William III and Mary II officially begin rule in 1689


English civil war33

English Civil War

Restoration

William and Mary

Glorious Revolution ends Absolute Monarchy in England


  • Login