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Intelligence. Intelligence Creativity Psychometrics: tests & measurements Cognitive approach. The Psychometric Approach. How do you define “Intelligence”? Theorists use narrow, operational definitions

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Intelligence
Intelligence

  • Intelligence

  • Creativity

  • Psychometrics: tests & measurements

  • Cognitive approach


The psychometric approach
The Psychometric Approach

  • How do you define “Intelligence”?

  • Theorists use narrow, operational definitions

  • Psychometricians do not claim that what is measured by an intelligence test is a good representation of “real-world” intelligence which is a broader concept

  • Is it useful?


Does g exist
Does “g” exist?

  • One of the longest-running debates in psychology:

    • global intelligence, a general ability

    • specific abilities

      …..More a matter of emphasis

      “Intelligence is what intelligence tests measure”

      Edward Boring


Psychometric approach cont
Psychometric approach cont.

  • Psychometric approach focuses on how well people perform on standardized mental tests and with what the scores correlate

    • Achievement tests - based on learning

    • Aptitude tests--measure the ability to acquire skills in the future

      ---the difference is really one of degree and intended use since all are based to some extent on experience with words, objects, etc.


Invention of iq tests
Invention of IQ Tests

  • Alfred Binet: 1904 Mental Age

    Theodore Simon

  • Lewis Terman: 1916 Stanford IQ

    Divided child’s mental age by the

    child’s chronological age to yield an

    Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

    All average children, regardless of age,

    would have an IQ of 100


Binet test comes to america
Binet Test comes to America

  • Lewis Terman revised Binet’s test

  • Devised norms for American kids

  • Stanford- Binet Intelligence Scale: 1916

  • Been updated many times

  • David Wechsler: Wechsler Adult

    Intelligence Scale (WAIS) (WISC)

    ---Probably the best IQ test for adults

    ---Different subscales (Verbal vs.. Performance)

    “He had a WAIS IQ of …..”


Iq tests cont
IQ tests cont.

  • Today’s tests based on norms rather than MA

  • Average is still set at 100

  • SD usually 15

  • 2/3 score between 85 and 115


New uses in america
New uses in America

  • Binet thought the tests could be useful for identifying children with learning problems--not to rank normal children

  • In America, the original purpose was lost

  • The tests came to be used to categorize people in school and in the armed services according to their “natural ability”.

    • Army alpha

    • Army beta (no English required)


More harm than good
More harm than good?

  • Identify mentally retarded

  • Identify gifted

  • Selection for jobs and schools

  • Inappropriate use has prompted revisions in use for students placed in special education classes--performance plus tests

  • Cognitive approach


Intelligence iq creativity 1
Intelligence, IQ, Creativity 1

  • You cannot be anything you want to be.

    Sorry. We have different capabilities and weaknesses. We need to capitalize on our strengths and compensate for our weaknesses. It is a bad idea to tell kids this--it is not true.


Intelligence iq creativity cont
Intelligence, IQ, & Creativity cont.

2.Psychometrics is a very sophisticated field which uses applied mathematics to measure psychological and behavioral attributes and make predictions. Psychometricians construct, standardize, validate tests. Many people who criticize tests do not understand test theory or the mathematics behind test construction.


Intelligence iq creativity 2
Intelligence, IQ, Creativity 2

3. There is a difference between criticizing a test, i.e., is a test valid, and criticizing its inappropriate use, i.e., should it be used for a certain purpose. Science issues versus values, policy, & political issues. A test may be valid but you still might not want to use it for a particular purpose--e.g., IQ test for chefs.


Intelligence iq creativity 3
Intelligence, IQ, Creativity 3

  • People who do not understand psychometrics often use tests inappropriately and even draw unwarranted conclusions and make decisions that hurt people on the basis of the tests. Most trained psychologists would not do this although unfortunately some have. Some historical abuses have given the testing industry a bad name. Feebleminded.

    When there is money to be made, sometimes ethics are compromised.


Intelligence iq creativity 4
Intelligence, IQ, Creativity 4

5. In the testing field, bias is a statistical concept and has a statistical answer. Is the test equally predictive? Are the slopes the same? Some historical abuses have clouded this issue. Political issues and scientific issues get confused here again.


Intelligence iq creativity 5
Intelligence, IQ, Creativity 5

6. One test score is not enough. A trained psychometrician (and most Ph.D. psychologists, I hope) know better than to make an important decision about a person based on one test or a single test administration. Labeling "retarded" or college admissions. Multiple pieces of evidence including performance are better.


Intelligence iq creativity
Intelligence, IQ & Creativity

7. If you don’t like the use of standardized tests, what is a fairer alternative? Often there is no fairer alternative that is practical. The abuses have been much greater when alternatives such as interviews have been used.

8. A test is nothing more than a short sample of behavior. If you have a better sample of what you want to understand or predict, then use it.


Important people in the history of the study of intelligence
Important People in the History of the Study of Intelligence

1. Galton- -devised correlation coefficient

2. Binet- -devised the first intelligence test

3. Terman- -(Stanford-Binet Intelligence

Test), IQ, Study of Geniuses

4. Spearman--General Intelligence (g) Used factor analysis.


Intelligence cont
Intelligence, cont.

5. Thurstone-- 7 Primary Mental Abilities

6. Wechsler-- developed the WAIS,

separate performance/verbal scales

7. Robert Sternberg--Triarchic Theory of

Intelligence, practical intelligence,

creativity

8. Howard Gardner--Multiple Intelligences


Intelligence testing creativity 1
Intelligence Testing/Creativity 1

1. Intelligence testing is useful for predicting academic success (i.e., grades) and predicting success in some occupations.

2. Intelligence tests are not perfect for predicting academic success because they do not measure motivation, creativity, social skills, and things such as artistic ability, musical ability, dramatic ability, and physical abilities all of which may contribute to academic success.


Intelligence creativity
Intelligence & Creativity

  • 3. Intelligence tests predict success in school better than success in life, in part, because success in life depends on social/practical intelligence.

    • R. Sternberg has tried (with minimal success) to measure social/practical intelligence.


Intelligence testing creativity 2
Intelligence Testing/Creativity 2

4. Research psychologists are interested in finding better ways to describe and understand the construct "intelligence".

Traditional tests tended to emphasize analytical reasoning and memory.

Sternberg argues that practical intelligence and creativity need to be included in the construct.


Intelligence testing creativity
Intelligence Testing & Creativity

  • 5. "Intelligence is the ability to adapt to, select, and shape environments". (Sternberg). What is considered "intelligent behavior" and valued by the culture, varies from culture to culture.


Intelligence testing creativity 3
Intelligence Testing/Creativity 3

6. If we didn’t have the concept "intelligence", we would probably invent something like it.

Cognitive abilities, analytical reasoning abilities, scholastic aptitude, etc., are all euphemisms.


Intelligence testing creativity cont 3
Intelligence Testing/Creativity cont. 3

We need to be able to determine on occasion when a person is mentally ill as opposed to mentally slow or suffering from brain damage, what people can do in schools and jobs, when they need special help and so forth.

Too expensive and time consuming to allow everyone to do everything and then see who can do the job or school work. We don’t have the resources.


Intelligence testing creativity 4
Intelligence Testing/Creativity 4

7. The historical concept is too narrow. It needs to be expanded.

8. Cognitive psychologists want to know "how" people solve problems in addition to whether or not they get the right answer (the psychometric approach).


Intelligence testing creativity cont
Intelligence testing/creativity cont.

9. It is still debatable whether "intelligence" is best thought of as a single trait that cuts across many different domains (analytical reasoning ability, e.g.,) or many separate types of abilities or intelligences. No agreement on this, even today.


Intelligence testing creativity cont1
Intelligence testing/creativity cont.

10. Both genetics and the environment play significant roles in intelligence, but how much intelligence can be improved by enriching the environment is not really known. Studies conflict. Going from an impoverished environment to an enriched one definitely helps. How early one needs to intervene is not known, but the earlier the better, probably by 2 yrs. old.


Intelligence testing creativity 5
Intelligence Testing/Creativity 5

11. Genetics:

(a) Over 50 different studies (Erlenmeyer-Kimling & Jarvik (1963) have shown that the more genes people have in common, the more similar the IQ. MZ always higher than DZ.

(b) MZ Twins reared apart are remarkably similar in intelligence.


Correlations in iq henderson 1982
Correlations in IQHenderson, 1982

Relationship r # of pairs

  • Individual with self: .87 456

  • MZ twins .86 1417

    • MZ apart .75

  • DZ twins .62 1329

  • Siblings .41 5350

    • Sibs apart .21 203


Creativity
Creativity

  • Creativity is overrated

  • Too much education can be bad

  • Different types of intelligence and cognitive styles are valuable for society

  • Creativity big “C” and little “c”

  • Creativity occurs is all fields--business, military (Alexander), sports, leadership


Creativity cont
Creativity cont.

  • Creativity: personality vs. intelligence

  • Sell your ideas

  • Creativity tests are not very good

  • Creativity can be trained in children

  • Societies/culture make a difference

  • Persistence & hard work are extremely important--don’t believe most of the legends


How creativity has been studied
How creativity has been studied

  • Societies that foster it

  • Biographies of the very creative

  • Different areas--science, literature, inventions

  • Development in children

  • Psychology of the person

    • Cognitive processes involved

    • Personality

    • Tests


Creativity cont1
Creativity cont.

  • Creative people work very hard. 70 hrs per wk

    on the average.

  • After IQ of about 125, increases in IQ don’t add

    to creativity.

  • Divergent thinking example: How many uses can

    you think of for a brick?

  • Overall there is no relation with mental illness although there are exceptions


Creativity 1
Creativity 1

• Creativity is a sociocultural judgment of the novelty, appropriateness, quality, and importance of a product. 

•  A person is creative when he or she regularly produces creative products. 

•  It is closer to domain-specificity than to domain-generality (r = .37 across domains) 

•  Difference between creative potential and creative performance 


Creativity 2 six personal resources
Creativity 2Six Personal Resources

1.  Intelligence- insightful, analytical,

ability to sell one’s ideas 

2.  Knowledge - Too much knowledge

can lead to entrenched thinking.

Moderate may be best although

there are exceptions 

3.  Thinking styles- question the norms 


Creativity 2 cont
Creativity 2 cont.

4.  Personality - risk takers, have the courage to stand

up for their beliefs in the face of ridicule (Galileo,

Freud, Semmelweiss, e.g.) 

5.  Motivation - intrinsic motivation, high energy, task-

focused

6.  Environmental context 

Divergent thinking

Risk-aversion (low tolerance for failure) 


Creativity stages in the creative process
Creativity  Stages in the Creative Process

1.  Preparation 

2.  Incubation/frustration 

3.  Illumination/Inspiration/Insight 

4.  Verification/hypothesis testing 

5.  Communication of results


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