Intelligence and intelligence testing
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Intelligence and Intelligence Testing. Definitions of intelligence: Terman: the ability to carry on abstract thinking. Wechsler: The capacity of an individual to act purposefully and think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment. Definitions continued.

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Intelligence and intelligence testing

Intelligence and Intelligence Testing

Definitions of intelligence:

Terman: the ability to carry on abstract thinking.

Wechsler: The capacity of an individual to act purposefully and think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment.


Definitions continued

Definitions continued

  • Burt: innate general cognitive ability

  • Robinson & Robinson: All of the knowledge a person has acquired.

  • Piaget: a basic life function that helps the organism (person) to adapt to its environment.


Major questions

Major Questions

  • Is intelligence a general characteristic?

  • Intelligence conceptualized as products that arise from activity or the processes people use to solve problems?

  • How stable is intelligence?

  • What do IQ scores predict?

  • What factors influence IQ scores?


Origins of intelligence testing

Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Alfred Binet (psychologist) and Theodore Simon (physician) in France, 1904

    • Requested to identify children who needed special instruction

    • Devised a test that examined a variety of cognitive tasks (e.g., carry out multiple instructions, identify the missing part of a picture, remember a string of random digits, etc.)


Post binet simon

Post Binet & Simon

  • Lewis Terman (at Stanford) modified the Binet-Simon scales to create the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

  • David Wechsler developed tests both for adults and for children (e.g., WISC…)

  • Raven’s Progressive Matrices were designed to assess reasoning about perceptual patterns…


Calculating iq

Calculating IQ

  • William Stern (Germany) developed concept of IQ, in which IQ=(MA/CA)*100

  • Now use “deviation IQ” based on the normal distribution…

  • Tests evaluate verbal and nonverbal abilities.


Achievement tests

Achievement Tests

  • IQ Test: underlying competence

  • Achievement Test: performance

  • Is this distinction realistic?


Is iq a stable attribute

Is IQ a stable attribute?

  • Infant IQ predicting later IQ?

  • Preschool IQ predicting later IQ?

  • Validity of IQ test?

    • IQ and grades in school

    • IQ and amount of schooling


Limitations of iq tests

Limitations of IQ tests

  • Cannot tell us about a fixed underlying intellectual capacity

  • Do not measure other skills important to adaptive living.


Terman study 1922

Terman study (1922)

  • Stereotypes of the “gifted child”?

  • 1500 California school children with IQ’s 140 or higher.


How do we explain iq differences

How do we explain IQ differences?

  • Twin studies and adoption studies.

  • Bouchard & McGue (1981).

    • Identical twins reared together.85

    • Identical twins reared apart.67

    • Fraternal twins reared together.58

    • Siblings .24

  • What does this data suggest?


Adoption studies

Adoption Studies

  • Texas Adoptiin Study (Loehlin et al.,1994)

  • Minnesota Transracial Adoption study (Scarr et al., 1993)

    TexasMinnesota

    biological mother.44.29

    adoptive mother.03.14

    adoptive father.06.08


Capron duyme 1989

Capron & Duyme, 1989

Adoptive parent

HighLow

BiologicalHigh119.60107.50

Parent

Low103.6092.40


Environmental influences

Environmental Influences

  • National US study: n=50,000 children; SB IQ scores

  • Family characteristics associated with IQ?

    • Family climate

    • Number of children in the family

    • Birth order

    • Zajonc: intellectual climate


Interaction of heredity and environment

Interaction of heredity and environment

  • Reaction range

  • Normal range of environments


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