Services and urban patterns
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SERVICES AND URBAN PATTERNS. AP Human geography Spring 2013. Chapters 12 & 13. USA at Night. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVACTOY7E5c&feature=player_embedded# !. World at Night. Services. Service = any activity that fulfills a human want or need Services are located in settlements

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Services and urban patterns

SERVICES AND URBAN PATTERNS

AP Human geography

Spring 2013

Chapters 12 & 13


Usa at night

USA at Night

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVACTOY7E5c&feature=player_embedded#!


World at night

World at Night


Services

Services

  • Service = any activity that fulfills a human want or need

  • Services are located in settlements

    • Location of services is important for profitability

    • Affluent regions tend to offer more services

    • Local diversity is evident in the provision of services


Where did services originate

Where Did Services Originate?

  • Three types of services

    • Consumer services

      • About 44 percent of all jobs in the United States

    • Business services

      • About 24 percent of all jobs in the United States

    • Public services

      • About 17 percent of all jobs in the United States

    • In the United States, all employment growth has occurred in the services sector


Percentage of gdp from services 2006

Percentage of GDP from Services, 2006

Over two-thirds of workers are employed in the service sector in most MDCs, while a less than one-half are in the service sector in most LDCs.

Where Did Services Originate?


Employment change in the u s by sector

Employment Change in the U.S. by Sector

All of the growth in employment since 1970 has been in the tertiary sector, whereas employment has remained unchanged in the primary and secondary sectors. Within the tertiary sector the greatest increase has occurred in professional services.

Where Did Services Originate?


Services and urban patterns

  • Services in early rural settlements

    • Early consumer services met societal needs

      • Examples = burial of the dead, religious centers, manufacturing centers

    • Early public services probably followed religious activities

    • Early business services to distribute and store food

Where Did Services Originate?


Ancient cities

Ancient Cities

  • Services in early urban settlements

    • Services in ancient cities

      • Earliest urban settlements (e.g., Ur, CatalTitris- Höyük), Athens, Rome

Where Did Services Originate?


Ancient ur

Ancient Ur

Ur, in modern-day Iraq, was one of the earliest urban settlements. The ziggurat, or stepped temple, was surrounded by a dense network of residences

Where Did Services Originate?


Catal titris h y k turkey

Catal (Titris) Höyük, Turkey

Schematic reconstruction drawing of a section of Level VI, ÇatalHöyük, Turkey,

ca. 6000–5900 BCE. (after J. Mellaart).

Landscape with volcanic eruption(?) / goddess(?),wall painting from - Level VII, ÇatalHöyük, Turkey,ca. 6150 BCE.

Where Did Services Originate?


Athens greece

Athens, Greece

The hilltop site of the Acropolis, dating to about 500 B.C., still dominates the skyline of modern Athens.

Where Did Services Originate?


Medieval cities

Medieval Cities

  • Services in medieval cities

    • Largest settlements were in Asia

    • European cities developed with feudalism

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p53kJX64ieQ

Where Did Services Originate?


Brugge belgium

Brugge, Belgium

Brugge (or Bruges) was a

major port and wool

Manufacturing center from the

12th century. It is marked by

squares surrounded by public

buildings.

Where Did Services Originate?


Paris france

Paris, France

Paris was originally surrounded by walls which were expanded to include new neighborhoods as the city grew.

Where Did Services Originate?


Medieval cities1

Medieval cities

Carcassonne, France. These cities were often surrounded by walls for protection. The walls have been demolished in most places, but they still stand around the medieval center of Carcassonne.

Where Did Services Originate?


Where are contemporary services located

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?

  • Services in rural settlements

    • Half of the world’s population lives in rural settlements

    • Two types

      • Clustered rural settlements

        • Circular or linear

        • Clustered settlements in Colonial America

      • Dispersed rural settlements

        • In the United States

        • In Great Britain

          • Enclosure movement


Clustered rural settlements

Clustered Rural Settlements

Zulu Village

Circular Rural Settlements

Kraal village in southern Africa, which have enclosures for the livestock in the center, surrounded by a ring of houses.

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?


Rural settlement patterns

Rural Settlement Patterns

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?


Gewandorf settlements germany

Gewandorf Settlements, Germany

The services present in rural settlements are:1.Agriculture2.Personal Servicesa.Religious Structuresb.Schools3.Handful of Public, Retail, and Producer Services

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?


Linear rural settlements

Linear Rural Settlements

French log-lot system houses were erected along a river, principal water source, Narrow lots – perpendicular to the river so each original settler had river access.

This would later be used in Louisiana by the French.

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?


Clustered settlements in colonial america

Clustered Settlements in Colonial America

Public buildings are grouped around a “common” which was used as a pasture.

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?


Services and urban patterns

  • Services in urban settlements

    • Differences between urban and rural settlements

      • Large size

      • High density

      • Social heterogeneity

    • Increasing percentage of people in cities

    • Increasing number of people in cities

      • MDCs have higher % of urban residents, but LDCs have more of the very large urban settlements.

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?


Percentage of population living in urban settlements

Percentage of Population Living in Urban Settlements

Population of urban settlements exceeded that of rural settlements for the first time in human history in 2008. (urbanization)

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?


Urban settlements with populations of at least 3 million

Urban Settlements With Populations of at Least 3 Million

Rapid growth of urban settlements in LDCs reflects increasing overall population plus migration from rural areas.

Where Are Contemporary Services Located?


Why are consumer services distributed in a regular pattern

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?

  • Central place theory

    • First proposed by Walter Christaller (1930s)

    • Characteristics

      • A central place has a market area (or hinterland)

    • Size of a market area

      • Range

      • Threshold


Daily urban systems

“Daily Urban Systems”

Delineated by functional ties, especially commuting, to the nearest metropolitan area. Everyone in the US has access to services in at least one large settlement.

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Central place theory

Central Place Theory

Consumer services and business services do not have the same distribution. Consumer services generally follow a regular pattern based on size of settlements. Business services cluster in specific settlements, creating a specialized pattern.

A central place is a market center for the exchange of goods and services by people attracted from the surrounding area. Central places compete against each other. This competition creates a regular pattern of settlements, according to the central place theory.

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Services and urban patterns

The area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted is the market area or hinterland . To establish the market area, a circle is drawn around the node. The closer to the periphery of the circle, the greater is the percentage of consumers who will choose to obtain services from other nodes.

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Central place theory1

Central Place Theory

Why hexagons to delineate market areas?

Circles are equidistant from center to edge, but they overlap or leave gaps.

Squares nest together without gaps, but their sides are not equidistant from the center.

The hexagon is a compromise. Offers a compromise between the geometric properties of circles and squares.

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Central place theory2

Central Place Theory

Market areas are arranged into a regular pattern according to central place theory, with larger settlements fewer and further apart.

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Services and urban patterns

  • Market-area analysis

    • Profitability of a location

      • Compute the range- Maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service. Miles or Time???

      • Compute the threshold- Minimum number of people needed to support the service. Think: If you were a developer, what would you take into consideration?

      • Draw the market area

    • Optimal location within a market

      • Best location in a linear settlement

      • Best location in a nonlinear settlement

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Services and urban patterns

According to geographers, the best location is the one that minimizes the distance to the services for the largest number of people.

Gravity Model –

predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Supermarket and convenience store market areas

Supermarket and Convenience Store Market Areas

Market area, range, and threshold for Kroger supermarkets (left) and UDF convenience stores in Dayton, Ohio. Supermarkets have much larger areas and ranges than convenience stores.- Why?

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Optimal location for a pizza delivery service

Optimal Location for a Pizza-Delivery Service

Geo-Pizza should located between 7th and 6th streets – Why?

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Services and urban patterns

  • Hierarchy of services and settlements

    • Nesting

      • Market areas in MDCs = a series of hexagons of various sizes

    • Rank-size distribution of settlements – ranking settlements from largest to smaller(population) or hierarchy.

      • Primate city rule

        • Primate cities

    • Periodic markets- services at the lower end of the Central Place Hierarchy

      • Collection of individuals who come together to offer goods and services in a location on specified days

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Walter christaller central place theory

Walter Christaller – Central Place Theory

Nesting

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Primate city status

PRIMATE CITY STATUS

A country’s leading city is always proportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling. The primate city is commonly at least twice as large as the next largest city and more than twice as significant.- Mark Jefferson

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Primate city status1

PRIMATE CITY STATUS

Not all countries have a primate city

  • India – New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata

  • China & Brazil – Beijing, Shanghai, Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Primate city of the world

PRIMATE CITY of the World

  • New York, New York

  • The City That Never Sleeps!

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Rank size rule

RANK-SIZE RULE

The country’s nth-largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement. The second-largest city is one-half the size of the largest, the fourth-largest city is one-fourth the size of the largest, and so on.

- George Zipf

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Rank size distribution in the united states and indonesia

Rank-Size Distribution in theUnited States and Indonesia

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Rank size rule1

RANK-SIZE RULE ?

• Paris (2.2 million) vs. Marseilles (800,000)

  • London (6.9 million) vs.

  • Birmingham (1 million)

  • Mexico City (21.8 million)

  • vs. Guadalajara (3.7 million)

Why Are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern?


Why do business services cluster in large settlements

Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?

  • Hierarchy of business services

    • Services in world cities

      • Business: clustering of services is a product of the Industrial Revolution (transportation and communications)

      • Consumer: retail services with extensive market areas

        • May include leisure services of national importance due to large thresholds, large ranges, and the presence of wealthy patrons.

      • Public: world cities are often the center of national or international political power


World cities

World Cities

World cities are centers for the provision of services in the global economy

Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?


Services and urban patterns

  • Business services in LDCs

    • Offshore financial services

      • Two functions:

        • Taxes – low or nonexistent

        • Privacy - businesses or individuals evade disclosure in their home countries

    • Back offices - business process outsourcing (BPO) Ex. Call centers.

      • LDCs are attractive because of:

        • Low wages

        • Ability to speak English (many Asian countries)

Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?


Business service cities in the u s

Business-Service Cities in the U.S.

Below the world cities in the hierarchy of U.S. cities are command and control centers, specialized producer-service centers, and dependent centers.

Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?


Services and urban patterns

  • Economic base of settlements

    • Two types:

      • Basic industries – exports primarily to consumers outside he settlement.

      • Nonbasicindustries – enterprises whose customers live in the same community – consumer services.

    • Specialization of cities in different services

    • Distribution of talent

Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?


Economic base of u s cities

Economic Base of U.S. Cities

Cities that have a high proportion of their labor force engaged in the specified economic activity shown.

Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?


Distribution of talent

Distribution of Talent

Individuals possessing special talents are not distributed uniformly among cities.

The principal reason enticing talented individuals to cluster in some cities more than others is cultural rather than economic.

Significant positive relationship between the distribution of talent and the distribution of diversity in the largest U.S. cities.

Attracting talented individuals is important for a city, because these individuals are responsible for promoting economic growth and innovation.

Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?


Geography of talent

Geography of Talent

Why Do Business Services Cluster in Large Settlements?


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