Urban patterns
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Urban Patterns. Warm-Up. List 3 distinct problems of cities 1. 2. 3. List 3 distinct problems in the suburbs: 1. 2. 3. Urbanization – The process whereby an increasing percentage of people live in an urban area

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Urban Patterns

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Urban patterns

Urban Patterns

Warm up


  • List 3 distinct problems of cities

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

  • List 3 distinct problems in the suburbs:

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

Urban patterns

  • Urbanization – The process whereby an increasing percentage of people live in an urban area

    Basic Elements of Urbanization: Increase in the number ofand percentage of people living in urban settlements.Increase in the land area occupied by urban settlements.

Urban patterns

  • The Industrial Revolution promoted urbanization.

  • Of the ten largest urban areas in the world, two are in More Developed Countries today

  • The change to LDCs dominating the list does not stem from improved development. People are migrating from the countryside even though jobs are not available and they have a high natural increase rate.

Urban patterns

  • According to Louis Wirth, urban areas are more likely than rural areas to have

    larger size (don’t know everyone).

    higher density (specialization).

    more heterogeneity (more tolerant of diversity).

    Higher social heterogeneity in urban settlements means that you may feel lonely and isolated in a crowd (surrounded by people who don’t care about them).

Urban patterns

  • Urbanized area- The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs

  • Metropolitan Statistical Area- definition of a city that covers the largest land area, created by the Census, based on counties

  • Megalopolis refers to adjacent, overlapping Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Best example: Boston to Washington “Boswash corridor”- one continuous urban complex

Three models of urbanization

Three Models of Urbanization

1. Concentric Zone Model

  • Created in 1923 by E.W. Burgess

  • States that a city grows outward from a central area in a series of RINGS. Same order of rings in each city although size varies.

Concentric zone model

Concentric Zone Model

  • Zone 1:CBD (nonresidential activities)

  • Zone 2: Zone of Transition (Industry and Low Quality Housing)

  • Zone 3: Zone of Independent Workers’ Homes (stable working-class families)

  • Zone 4: Zone of Better Residences (Newer, more spacious homes for middle class families)

  • Zone 5: Commuter’s Zone (people who choose to live far out- not part of the city limits)

Sector model

Sector Model

2. Sector Model

*Homer Hoyt created it in 1939

*A city develops in a series of sectors, NOT RINGS

Development begins in certain areas of the city for various reasons. Then as a city grows it expands outward in a WEDGE or SECTOR from the center

Sector model1

Sector Model

Sector 1: CBD

Sector 2: Transportation and Industry

Sector 3: Low-class residential

Sector 4: Middle-class residential

Sector 5: High-class residential

Multiple nuclei model

Multiple Nuclei Model

3. Multiple Nuclei Model

*Created by Harris and Ullman in 1945

*Believes that cities are complex and include more than one center. A city consists of a collection of nodes around which certain types of people or activities cluster, while incompatible activities will avoid clustering in the same location.

Multiple nuclei model1

Multiple Nuclei Model

  • 1. CBD

  • 2. Light Manufacturing

  • 3 Low-class residential

  • 4. Middle-class residential

  • 5. High-class residential

  • 6. Heavy manufacturing

  • 7. Outlying Business District

  • 8. Residential Suburb

  • 9. Industrial Suburb

Critics of the models

Critics of the Models

  • Too simple

  • They Fail to consider the variety of reasons that lead people to select residential locations

  • All based on conditions in cities between WWI and WWII

  • However, if you combine the models it does help to explain where different types of people live in a city

Cities around the world

Cities around the World

  • Europe: Like the U.S. the wealthy cluster along a sector extending out from the CBD

  • Europe: Unlike the U.S. wealthy Europeans still live in the inner-cities (upper-class sector)

  • Europe: Today, low income people are less likely to live in inner-cities and now live on the outskirts of European cities

Urban patterns


  • Latin America: People with high incomes cluster in the center of the city for greater access to services

  • THIS IS A LOT LIKE EUROPE… hmmm. Many LDC countries have cities set up like European cities due to colonization by European Countries.

Squatter settlements ldcs

Squatter Settlements- LDCs

  • Poor immigrants to urban areas camp on the land in primitive shelters

Problems in inner cities

Problems in Inner Cities

  • Filtering- The process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to renting to low-income people to eventualabandonment

  • redlining- A process by which banks designate an area within which they refuse to lend money for improvements

  • blockbusting- A process by which real estate agents convince white owners to sell their houses Public Housing is low-income government-owned housing

Biggest vocab word of the chapter


*****Gentrification- A process of converting a neighborhood from low-income to middle-class******

Urban patterns

  • The zone in transition in U.S. cities typically contains:


    -gentrified buildings

    -public housing

  • According to U.S. law, when a family is forced by a city to relocate moving expenses and rent increases are paid by the government.

Things you may already know

Things you may already know..

  • In U.S. cities, the underclass is clustered in inner-city neighborhoods.

  • The underclass is characterized in part by high rates of drug addiction.

  • U.S. central cities face fiscal problems and many times reduce services

  • Compared to whites, African Americans in U.S. cities are more likely to be



  • Peripheral Model- Shows an urban area to be the inner city tied together with suburbs and businesses by a beltway

  • Edge Cities- nodes around the beltway that have office parks, shopping malls, etc.

  • Density Gradient- number of houses per unit of land diminishes as distance from the center city increases.

Problems with suburbs

Problems with Suburbs

  • URBAN SPRAWL- progressive spread of development over the landscape in a non-continuous manner. Opposite is SMART GROWTH- laws to limit urban sprawl and preserve farmland (no new highways until areas are filled in)

  • RUSH HOUR- four consecutive 15-minute periods that have the heaviest traffic

  • TOO MANY LOCAL GOVERNMENTS makes it difficult to solve problems

  • Public Transportation in general has a downward trend while RAPID TRANSIT is on the rise

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