Chapter 13 urban patterns
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Chapter 13: Urban Patterns. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. Why Do Services Cluster Downtown?. CBD land uses Central business districts (CBDs) Retail services in the CBD Retailers with a high threshold Retailers with a high range

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Chapter 13: Urban Patterns

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Chapter 13 urban patterns

Chapter 13: Urban Patterns

The Cultural Landscape:

An Introduction to Human Geography


Why do services cluster downtown

Why Do Services Cluster Downtown?

  • CBD land uses

    • Central business districts (CBDs)

    • Retail services in the CBD

      • Retailers with a high threshold

      • Retailers with a high range

      • Retailers serving downtown workers

    • Business services in the CBD


Cbd of charlotte nc

CBD of Charlotte, NC

Figure 13-1


Why do services cluster downtown1

Why Do Services Cluster Downtown?

  • Competition for land in the CBD

    • High land costs

      • Some of the most expensive real estate in the world = Tokyo

      • Intensive land use

        • Underground areas

      • Skyscrapers

        • “Vertical geography”


Why do services cluster downtown2

Why Do Services Cluster Downtown?

  • Activities excluded from the CBD

    • Lack of industry in the CBD

      • Modern factories require large, one-story parcels of land

    • Lack of residents in the CBD

      • Push and pull factors involved

  • CBDs outside North America

    • Less dominated by commercial considerations.


Where are people distributed in urban areas

Where Are People Distributed in Urban Areas?

  • Models of urban structure

    • Are used to explain where people live in cities

    • Three models, all developed in the city of Chicago

      • Concentric zone model

      • Sector model

      • Multiple nuclei model


Concentric zone model

Concentric Zone Model

Figure 13-4


Sector model

Sector Model

Figure 13-5


Multiple nuclei model

Multiple Nuclei Model

Figure 13-6


Where are people distributed in urban areas1

Where Are People Distributedin Urban Areas?

  • Geographic application of the models

    • Models can be used to show where different social groups live in the cities

      • Census tracts

      • Social area analysis

    • Criticism of the models

      • Models may be too simple

      • Models may be outdated


Where are people distributed in urban areas2

Where Are People Distributedin Urban Areas?

  • Applying the models outside North America

    • European cities

    • Less developed countries

      • Colonial cities

      • Cities since independence

      • Squatter settlements


Income distribution in the paris region

Income Distribution in the Paris Region

Figure 13-10


Model of a latin american city

Model of a Latin American City

Figure 13-14


Why do inner cities face distinctive challenges

Why Do Inner Cities Face Distinctive Challenges?

  • Inner-city physical issues

    • Most significant = deteriorating housing

      • Filtering

      • Redlining

    • Urban renewal

    • Public housing

    • Renovated housing

      • Gentrification


Racial change in chicago

Racial Change in Chicago

Figure 13-16


Why do inner cities face distinctive challenges1

Why Do Inner Cities Face Distinctive Challenges?

  • Inner-city social issues

    • The underclass

      • An unending cycle of social and economic issues

      • Homelessness

    • Culture of poverty


Why do inner cities face distinctive challenges2

Why Do Inner Cities Face Distinctive Challenges?

  • Inner-city economic issues

    • Eroding tax base

      • Cities can either reduce services or raise taxes

    • Impact of the recession

      • Housing market collapse


Foreclosures in baltimore

Foreclosures in Baltimore

Figure 13-18


Why do suburbs face distinctive challenges

Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges?

  • Urban expansion

    • Annexation

    • Defining urban settlements

      • The city

      • Urbanized areas

      • Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs)

        • Metropolitan divisions

        • Micropolitan statistical areas


Annexation in chicago

Annexation in Chicago

Figure 13-19


City urbanized area and msa of st louis

City, Urbanized Area, and MSA of St. Louis

Figure 13-20


Why do suburbs face distinctive challenges1

Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges?

  • Urban expansion

    • Local government fragmentation

      • Council of government

      • Consolidations of city and county governments

      • Federations

    • Overlapping metropolitan areas


Why do suburbs face distinctive challenges2

Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges?

  • Peripheral model

    • Edge cities

    • Density gradient

    • Cost of suburban sprawl

  • Suburban segregation

    • Residential segregation

    • Suburbanization of businesses


Density gradient

Density Gradient

Figure 13-23


Suburban stress

Suburban Stress

Figure 13-25


Chapter 13 urban patterns

Why Do Suburbs Face Distinctive Challenges?

  • Transportation and suburbanization

    • Motor vehicles

      • More than 95 percent of all trips = made by car

    • Public transit

      • Advantages of public transit

        • Transit travelers take up less space

        • Cheaper, less pollutant, and more energy efficient than an automobile

        • Suited to rapidly transport large number of people to small area

      • Public transit in the United States

        • Used primarily for rush-hour community for workers into and out of CBD

        • Small cities-minimal use

        • Most Americans prefer to commute by automobile


Subway and tram lines in brussels belgium

Subway and Tram Lines in Brussels, Belgium

Figure 13-28


The end

The End.

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