Lipids
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LIPIDS. Classification of lipids. Triglycerides or triacylglycerol Waxes Phospholipids or Phosphoglycerides Steroids. Triacylglyerol. Fats : triglycerides which are solid at room temperature ( most saturated triglycerides, e.g. beef, fat, or lard)

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LIPIDS

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Lipids

LIPIDS


Classification of lipids

Classification of lipids

  • Triglycerides or triacylglycerol

  • Waxes

  • Phospholipids or Phosphoglycerides

  • Steroids


Triacylglyerol

Triacylglyerol

Fats : triglycerides which are solid at room temperature ( most saturated triglycerides, e.g. beef, fat, or lard)

Oils : triglycerides which are liquid at room temperature ( most triglycerides with several unsaturation, e.g. corn oil, peanut oil, or fish oils)


Lipids

triacylglycerol

Fatty acid

glycerol


Lipids

Triacylglyerol

  • Simple Triacylglyerol

  • Mixed Triacylglyerol

Glyceryl lauropalmitooleate


Fatty acids

Fatty Acids


Waxes

Waxes

  • carnauba wax C25H51CO2C30H61

  • beewax C15H31CO2C30H61


Phospholipids

Phospholipids


Cell membrane

Cell membrane


Steroids

Steroids

Perhydrocyclopentanophenanthrene


Cholesterol

Cholesterol


Bile acids

Bile Acids

Cholic acid


Saponification

Saponification

heat

H2O

Sodium stearate,

a soap

Tristearin, a fat

glycerol

NOTE : chemically a soap is the sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid.


Lipids

The formation of soap micelles in water

Soaps are useful cleaning agents because of the different affinities of a soap molecule’s two end.


Lipids

The usefulness of soaps as cleaning agents is limited by their tendency to precipitate out of solution in “hard” water. Hard water is water that is acidic or that contains ions of calcium, magnesium, or iron.

2 CH3(CH2)16COONa + Ca2+ (CH3(CH2)16COO)2Ca + 2 Na+


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