Lipids
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LIPIDS. Classification of lipids. Triglycerides or triacylglycerol Waxes Phospholipids or Phosphoglycerides Steroids. Triacylglyerol. Fats : triglycerides which are solid at room temperature ( most saturated triglycerides, e.g. beef, fat, or lard)

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Classification of lipids
Classification of lipids

  • Triglycerides or triacylglycerol

  • Waxes

  • Phospholipids or Phosphoglycerides

  • Steroids


Triacylglyerol
Triacylglyerol

Fats : triglycerides which are solid at room temperature ( most saturated triglycerides, e.g. beef, fat, or lard)

Oils : triglycerides which are liquid at room temperature ( most triglycerides with several unsaturation, e.g. corn oil, peanut oil, or fish oils)


triacylglycerol

Fatty acid

glycerol


Triacylglyerol

  • Simple Triacylglyerol

  • Mixed Triacylglyerol

Glyceryl lauropalmitooleate



Waxes
Waxes

  • carnauba wax C25H51CO2C30H61

  • beewax C15H31CO2C30H61




Steroids
Steroids

Perhydrocyclopentanophenanthrene



Bile acids
Bile Acids

Cholic acid


Saponification
Saponification

heat

H2O

Sodium stearate,

a soap

Tristearin, a fat

glycerol

NOTE : chemically a soap is the sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid.


The formation of soap micelles in water

Soaps are useful cleaning agents because of the different affinities of a soap molecule’s two end.


The usefulness of soaps as cleaning agents is limited by their tendency to precipitate out of solution in “hard” water. Hard water is water that is acidic or that contains ions of calcium, magnesium, or iron.

2 CH3(CH2)16COONa + Ca2+ (CH3(CH2)16COO)2Ca + 2 Na+


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