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Lipids. Lipids. Lipids Molecules made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms (and some oxygen atoms too) Used for storing energy Important part of cell membranes. Lipids. 4 classes Triglycerides 1 glycerol molecule, 3 fatty acid molecules Energy source, insulation Phospholipids

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lipids1
Lipids
  • Lipids
    • Molecules made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms (and some oxygen atoms too)
    • Used for storing energy
    • Important part of cell membranes
lipids2
Lipids
  • 4 classes
    • Triglycerides
      • 1 glycerol molecule, 3 fatty acid molecules
      • Energy source, insulation
    • Phospholipids
      • 1 glycerol molecule, 1 phosphate group, 2 fatty acid molecules
      • Cell membrane barrier
    • Waxes
      • 1 long fatty acid chain, 1 long alcohol chain
      • Waterproof protective coating
    • Steroids
      • 4 fused carbon rings with functional groups attached
      • Hormones like testosterone, cholesterol, estrogen
lipids3
Lipids
  • Making a lipid:
    • The first key part to a lipid is a glycerol
      • Glycerol serves as the “backbone” of the lipid
lipids4
Lipids

Car

Carbon Chain

Carboxyl

Group

COOH

  • Making a lipid
    • The other key parts to a lipid are fatty acids
      • Long carbon chains
lipids5
Lipids
  • Unsaturated
    • One or more double bonds in the carbon chain
    • There could be more hydrogen
    • Generally considered “better” for you
    • Liquid at room temperature
    • Kinked (not straight)
  • 2 kinds of fatty acids:
    • Saturated
      • All single bonds in the carbon chain
      • There are the maximum possible number of hydrogen
      • Generally considered “bad” for you
      • Solid at room temperature
      • Straight
lipids6
Lipids
  • Making a lipid
    • So how do the glycerol and fatty acids come together?
    • Dehydration synthesis…
lipids7
Lipids

Dehydration synthesis in a triglyceride

lipids8
Lipids

Dehydration synthesis in a triglyceride

lipids9
Lipids
  • Examples of lipids
    • Meat fat
    • Oil
    • Waxes
    • Butter
    • Grease
    • Mayo
lipids10
Lipids
  • Tests to run:
    • The water solubility test
      • Lipids do not mix in water – non lipids do
      • This is because lipids are hydrophobic (as opposed to hydrophilic)
    • The brown paper bag test
      • If you put a substance on a paper bag and the bag dried well over time, the substance was a non-lipid. If the bag never looks dry and light can get through it, the substance was a lipid
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