Lipids
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Lipids. Lipids. Lipids Molecules made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms (and some oxygen atoms too) Used for storing energy Important part of cell membranes. Lipids. 4 classes Triglycerides 1 glycerol molecule, 3 fatty acid molecules Energy source, insulation Phospholipids

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Lipids

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Lipids

Lipids


Lipids1

Lipids

  • Lipids

    • Molecules made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms (and some oxygen atoms too)

    • Used for storing energy

    • Important part of cell membranes


Lipids2

Lipids

  • 4 classes

    • Triglycerides

      • 1 glycerol molecule, 3 fatty acid molecules

      • Energy source, insulation

    • Phospholipids

      • 1 glycerol molecule, 1 phosphate group, 2 fatty acid molecules

      • Cell membrane barrier

    • Waxes

      • 1 long fatty acid chain, 1 long alcohol chain

      • Waterproof protective coating

    • Steroids

      • 4 fused carbon rings with functional groups attached

      • Hormones like testosterone, cholesterol, estrogen


Lipids3

Lipids

  • Making a lipid:

    • The first key part to a lipid is a glycerol

      • Glycerol serves as the “backbone” of the lipid


Lipids4

Lipids

Car

Carbon Chain

Carboxyl

Group

COOH

  • Making a lipid

    • The other key parts to a lipid are fatty acids

      • Long carbon chains


Lipids5

Lipids

  • Unsaturated

    • One or more double bonds in the carbon chain

    • There could be more hydrogen

    • Generally considered “better” for you

    • Liquid at room temperature

    • Kinked (not straight)

  • 2 kinds of fatty acids:

    • Saturated

      • All single bonds in the carbon chain

      • There are the maximum possible number of hydrogen

      • Generally considered “bad” for you

      • Solid at room temperature

      • Straight


Lipids6

Lipids

  • Making a lipid

    • So how do the glycerol and fatty acids come together?

    • Dehydration synthesis…


Lipids7

Lipids

Dehydration synthesis in a triglyceride


Lipids8

Lipids

Dehydration synthesis in a triglyceride


Lipids9

Lipids

  • Examples of lipids

    • Meat fat

    • Oil

    • Waxes

    • Butter

    • Grease

    • Mayo


Lipids10

Lipids

  • Tests to run:

    • The water solubility test

      • Lipids do not mix in water – non lipids do

      • This is because lipids are hydrophobic (as opposed to hydrophilic)

    • The brown paper bag test

      • If you put a substance on a paper bag and the bag dried well over time, the substance was a non-lipid. If the bag never looks dry and light can get through it, the substance was a lipid


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