Socrates 469-399 BC . Plato 427-347 B.C. Aristotle 384-322 B.C. . I. The Allegory of the Cave. 1. We might all be in our own caves. 2. If we were inside a cave, we would believe what we see (the shadows) as the reality. 3. It is painful to be enlightened.
2. If we were inside a cave, we would believe what we see (the shadows) as the reality.
3. It is painful to be enlightened.
4. Once enlightened, (a) he will pity those in the den. (b) he will be unwilling to descend to human affairs, but instead try to help others to see the light, the true reality.
5. But those in the cave would think that he lost his eyes, and would even put him to death.
6. The capacity of learning exists in the soul already. One just needs to turn the soul toward true knowledge.
7. The innate virtue of wisdom needs to be converted toward the reality, and rendered useful and profitable, otherwise it will be useless or even hurtful.
8. The uneducated are not fit to be ministers of State.
Or the slaves of
“glasses”? Or our
1. Nothing in the sensible world is “real”. They are imperfect imitations of the forms. Forms “tie” things together and make them what they are.
2. The forms are behind the many manifestations. Hence for Plato, lists of examples cannot serve as substitute for a definition.
Forms – “rules of using a term” (p. 31) or the higher reality (meaning-object)?
3. Real definition (that captures the form) and nominal definition (what the word represents for ordinary people). (pp. 31-32)
4. Chinese thinkers – how the word is used socially and historically, Plato – what is the essence (meaning, form) of a thing.
Reason Forms (ideas) Objects of thought
Understanding Mathematical World of being
Beliefs Objects of sense Sensible world
World of becoming