socrates 469 399 b c n.
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Socrates (469 – 399 B.C.). “The unexamined life is not worth living.” Socratic method: ask questions to find out how to act by learning the essence of a thing—what makes it be, for example, an act of holiness or justice

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socrates 469 399 b c

Socrates (469 – 399 B.C.)

“The unexamined life is not worth

living.”

Socratic method: ask questions to find out how to act by learning the essence of a thing—what makes it be, for example, an act of holiness or justice

Socratic ignorance: to know that even though you do not know what true holiness or justice is, you know the method (the questioning search for the essence of things) by which to live wisely

socrates

Socrates

•“Virtue is knowledge”: without knowing why a thing has value or excellence (aretê), you cannot act intelligently.

Your actions should be based on doing the right thing—that for which you can give informed, defensible reasons—rather than doing things simply because the majority says those actions are right.

the value of philosophy

The Value of Philosophy

It allows us to decide for ourselves what to believe about our place in the universe (Plato)

It frees us from the ignorance that causes the cycle of birth, suffering, and death (Buddhism)

It allows us to actualize our higher-level, intellectual needs and opens us up to ambiguity and change (Aristotle), and thus makes us more tolerant and open-minded (feminism)