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Science project . By:Sultan AL Thani . Introduction . We are going to investigate human ingenuity and the connection between the reactivity of metals and when they were discovered and the connection between them . Magnesium. Symbol:Mg Atomic number:12

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Science project

Science project

By:Sultan AL Thani


Introduction
Introduction

We are going to investigate human ingenuity and the connection between the reactivity of metals and when they were discovered and the connection between them


Magnesium
Magnesium

Symbol:Mg

Atomic number:12

Atomic mass:24.305 Atomic molecules per unit

Melting point:650.0 °C (923.15 K, 1202.0 °F)

Boil point:1107.0 °C (1380.15 K, 2024.6 °F)

Number of protons/electrons:12

Number of neutrons 12

Atomic structure

Number of Energy Levels: 3First Energy Level: 2 Second Energy Level: 8 Third Energy Level: 2.

Magnesium was discovered in the year 1808, the scientist that discovered this metal was Humphrey Davy. The name magnesium originated form a city called magnesia.


Calcium
Calcium

Symbol:Ca

Atomic number:20

Atomic mass:40.078 amu

Melting point:8390 C

Boiling point: 1484 C

Number of Protons/electrons:20

Number of neutrons:20

Atomic structure:Number of Energy Levels: 4First Energy Level: 2 Second Energy Level: 8 Third Energy Level: 8 Fourth Energy Level: 2. The date Calcium was discovered is 1808. The person that discovered calcium Humphrey Davy. People can use calcium for life forms for bones and shells.


Potassium
Potassium

Name: Potassium

Symbol: K

Atomic Number: 19

Atomic Mass: 39.0983 amu

Melting Point: 63.65 c

Boiling Point: 774.0 c

Number of Protons/Electrons: 20

Number of Neutrons: 20

Classification: Alkali Metal – group 1 of the periodic table and are reactive metals due to 1 electron in their outer shell. The alkali metals are malleable, ductile and are good

conductors of heat and electricity.


The early scientists
The early scientists

  • The early chemists had no idea of Atomic structure or of protons or electrons there was no such thing as a proton number.


How did they find a relationship in the early days
How did they find a relationship in the early days.

  • The early chemists tried to find patterns in the elements.

  • They had two ways.

  • These were to look at their physical and chemical properties.

  • Or their relative mass.


The relationship between the elements the early days
The relationship between the elements the early days.

  • The elements and the hierachy of the elements for the reactivity series was determined by doing experiments to see how strongly metal reacts.

  • The three standard reactions used by the early 19th century chemists were to see how the elements reacted with

  • Air

  • Water

  • Dilute acid


Newlands octaves
Newlands Octaves

  • A scientist in 1863 called Newlands noticed that every eighth element had similar properties. These were called Newlands Octaves.

  • The pattern broke down on the third row with transition metals such as Fe and Cu and Zn not fitting in.

  • Latter in the 20th century scientists realized why, the arrangement of electrons and protons made elements behave differently.


The 20 th century
THE 20TH CENTURY

  • It was not until the 20th century after protons and electrons were discovered that it was realized the elements should be arranged in order of proton number.

  • And that elements react due to the number of electrons that are in its out shields.


The power of electrons
THE POWER OF ELECTRONS

  • Potassium and Calcium are linked together because they are in group 1 and have the same number of electrons in their outermost electron shells which is one electron.

  • Magnesium although in group 2 shares a common relationship between Potassium and Calcium is that it is reactive because it has only two electrons but one outer shell and is fairly reactive like the other two.


Conclusion
Conclusion

I learned from this project that all metals are linked together in some way by the periodic table. I found out that they are connected by the time that they were discovered and by the same scientist.