medieval europe aka middle ages n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Medieval Europe aka Middle Ages PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Medieval Europe aka Middle Ages

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 37

Medieval Europe aka Middle Ages - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 139 Views
  • Uploaded on

Medieval Europe aka Middle Ages. 500-1250 CE. Geography of Europe. Smallest continent on it’s own- BUT combined with Asia- known as Eurasia- creates world’s largest landmass Shaped like a big peninsula, has many peninsulas and islands

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Medieval Europe aka Middle Ages' - zorana


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
geography of europe
Geography of Europe
  • Smallest continent on it’s own- BUT combined with Asia- known as Eurasia- creates world’s largest landmass
  • Shaped like a big peninsula, has many peninsulas and islands
  • Surrounded by Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea and Baltic Sea
slide3
Scandinavia has fjords – narrow inlets
  • CLIMATE- temperate- but there are extreme temps along Asia border and Alps
  • Many mines have helped sustain Europe’s economy over time: coal, iron, oil, bauxite, copper, lead ,zinc, gold and silver
slide4
2000 years ago Europe was heavily forested
  • Deforested the area and set up farms
  • N. European Plain- most fertile area
  • Fishing very important (close to so many seas)
  • Rivers very useful to get around Europe
the middle ages
THE Middle Ages
  • Also Known As Medieval ( Latin for Middle) because in the middle of ancient and modern times- or Dark Ages- b/c light of civ had gone out
  • End of Western Roman Empire ( 500 AD)
  • Trade declined BUT ownership of land=wealth and power
christianity spreads
Christianity spreads
  • The Pope helped to spread it by sending missionaries to teach about Christianity
  • Britain was one of the first places “converted”
  • Not all were missionaries from the pope- 400’s AD (Saint) Patrick went on his own- people claim he drove all the snakes out of Ireland- named a saint b/c of this
religious communities
Religious communities

monasteries- (men) monks

Convents- (women) nuns devote their “LIVES” to God!

Benedict – 500’s wrote first “code” (rules) for monks- Benedictine Rule

Abbot – head monk:

Monks> pray for most of the day Farm Study (copied books by hand)

Make wine , crafts , Medicines

slide8
480’s Clovis converted Gaul to Christianity
  • 700’s Charlemagne ruled Gaul
  • Had conquered France, Italy, Germany
  • Was Christian and as he conquered spread Christianity
  • 800’s Pope Leo III crowned him Emperor of Rome( whoop de do!) after he conquered it
slide9
New capital NOT Rome- Aachen (Germany)
  • P.S. Literacy was not encouraged during MA in Europe- BUT Charles knew differently and had his “court” filled with books, scholars, poets, and musicians
vikings
Vikings

Charlemagne’s rule ended in early 800’s

Norsemen (Vikings) invaded from the NORTH into

Scandinavia – looking for land and riches

900’s : Norsemen settled around Seine R. Became known as NORMANS – called area NORMANDY – adopted Christianity and French language.

1066 : Normans invaded England- leader was “William the Conqueror”

1199 : King John I ruler of England – made lords pay for wars, could imprison without a trial

feudalism
FEUDALISM
  • A new form of governing and organization
  • Definition- a society based on land ownership AND service
  • Manor-large estate owned by wealthy nobles
lord lady vassal
Lord/Lady/Vassal
  • Lord- owned the manor/could also be “king” of his land
  • Bishop- religious person- also could be a lord
  • Lady-lord’s wife was in charge of castle
  • Vassal- took an oath to serve the lord
    • did not own land
    • Lord gave each ‘V’ a fief ( separate manor- he did not own it but he managed it)
    • Most important job was to serve as lord’s knight
knights
Knights
  • Knight- warrior on horseback
  • Different Stages:
    • Page (7)-left home (son of a noble)
          • Lived with a knight
          • Learned ettiquite
          • Cared for horses
    • Squire (15-20)
          • Rode into battle with a knight
          • Blessed by a preist
          • Given a sword and a belt
    • Knight- protected lord and manor
        • Must have 3 horses, armor, and a squire
        • Got extra $ by jousting!
craftworkers
Craftworkers
  • Craftworkers- free people
    • Made/built saddles, shoes, etc.
    • Family owned business
    • Father was expert/master
  • Levels:
    • Age 14- apprentice- live with a master
    • 17-28 journeyman- could join a guild
    • Master- makes a “master piece” to show capability
  • GUILD- groups of workers, set prices and rules about quality
slide15
Serfs
    • Given land to farm
    • Had to work lord’s land too
    • Pay rent/taxes
    • Ask permission on lord to get married
    • One room house with people and animals
    • Usually died young
    • Church bells signaled breaks in day
women in the ma
Women in the MA
  • Women had fewer rights
  • But had important roles- supported their families
  • Governed manor households
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine -c.1200 AD- ran an area in S. France as a vassal, because queen of France, married Louis VII, divorced him became Queen of England by marrying King Henry II, had many kids- 2 sons became Kings of England
the power
The power
  • By the middle/late Middle Ages power fell into the hands of the spiritual leader (Pope) and political leader (king).
  • Pope seen as God’s rep. on Earth- got power from God and people
  • If people disagreed with the Pope he would EXCOMMUNICATE them!
  • King usually had power/things/land from family
slide18
In the mid 900’s AD- pope gave the emperor ( of Charlemagne’s empire) approval to rule- now called Holy Roman Empire ( pope lives in Rome)
  • Did not inherit crown-were elected by nobles- which led to fights and trickery!
the pope steps in
The Pope steps in
  • Pope Leo IX believed all religious officials should answer to the Pope b/c everyone did answer to the first pope ( St. Peter) then all should answer to every Pope
  • 1054 AD Constantinople's bishop refused to do this so Leo excommunicated him thus began the Eastern Orthodox Church
  • 1073 Pope Gregory VII vs. Emperor Henry IV
breaking up is hard to do
Breaking up is hard to do!

1054: Christian church split –

Constantine’s church: Eastern Orthodox ; Rome: Roman Catholic

crusades
Crusades
  • A Long series of wars between Christians and Muslims in SW Asia over control of Palestine
  • Holy Land to both
  • Turkish Muslims were attacking any Christians who visited Jesus’ town
  • Turks raided the Byz. Empire- so the Emp asked the Pope for help!
crusades1
Crusades
  • 1045 Pope Urban II called for a Christian Pilgrimage (1st Crusade) to Jerusalem to capture it back from Muslim Turks
  • 1291- last crusade
  • Crusade- Latin for marked with a cross
slide23
#1
  • 1st Crusade 1096- 5000 Crusaders left Europe for the HL- the peasant crusaders (pc) attacked Jews in Germany- blamed them for Jesus’ death- most of the “pcs” were killed before they reached Jerusalem
  • Nobles reached J and took it over- set up 4 small towns and traded with Europe
  • BUT.. Within 50 years Muslims began taking land back thus the second Crusuade
2 and 3
#2 and # 3
  • 1147- French and Germans set out to retake the Holy Land – again
  • Poor planning and heavy “troop” loss led to a disaster
slide25
#3
  • 1189- Muslims had recaptured all of the HL- The French, German, English, and HRE led armies in- But the German king died, French King and HRE left- so that left King Richard I( the Lionhearted) to battle with Saladin ( Muslim leader)
  • Both were respected but overall, Saladin kept Jerusalem for the Muslims
slide26
#4
  • 1201- French Knights set out this time- from Venice- and in order to pay for the trip they had to capture Zara for the HRE
  • Instead of going to Jerusalem- they got sidetracked and ransacked Constantinople ( another Christian city……) and never made it to Jerusalem
many more and then finally
Many more and then finally
  • By 1291 the Muslims had recaptured ALL of the holy land and the Crusades were DONE ( unsuccessful for Christians)
  • Why, you may ask?
    • Had to travel far from home on FOOT- many died
    • Weren’t prepared to battle in the desert
    • Outnumbered by well prepared and well led armies
    • Christians fought amongst themselves and were unorganized
slide28
Crusades:
    • helped kings to become more powerful
    • Created more tensions between Jews, Christians and Muslims
    • increased trade
    • increased towns
    • increased disease…..
slide29
Many wanted to visit religious places- so went on pilgrimages to do so- traveled to Holy and religious sites around Europe and Asia
  • Some believed in the “church” so much that when they dies- they left land to the church- which was divided into fiefs- and the church became a lord- humor anyone????
being religious
Being religious
  • Monks of Cluny- French Monks- unhappy with Church affairs- became a religious order and devoted lives to nothing but God
  • Dominicans and Franciscan friars lived in cities and spread Christian teachings- St. Francis of Assisi ( most famous one)
slide31
As towns grew- eventually desire for education did as well-
  • 1st university in Bologna, Italy also had them in Paris (Sorbonne) and England
  • Thomas Aquinas- reasoned that rational thought could be used to argue Christian beliefs ( eg. existence of God )
  • Also Natural Law- God had created a law about how the world operated
art architecture
Art/Architecture
  • Had traveling musicians called troubadours or minstrels- and would sing and dance and make fun of people

*showed devotion to God by:

(during M.Ages): 1. Built huge churches called Cathedrals (ex. Notre Dame)

2. going on pilgrimages to Rome or Jerusalem

slide33
1215 : Kings / Lords irritated with King John’s “idea’s” *limited his power with a legal document *called Magna Carta – at first only pertained to nobles but then to all

“habeas corpus”- you have the body- meaning you had to have just cause to arrest someone, etc.

  • Created a Parliament- law making body that still governs England today!
hundred years war
Hundred Years’ War
  • 1328- the French king died- he had no heirs so England and France battled for his throne- France won- but England did not relent- thus began the war!
  • For 100 years the English fought well- then Joan of Arc ( French GIRL) rallied the French to stand against them- the English killed her- but the French succeeded!
effects
England

Parliament's power grew

King now needed permission

King lost power

France

King’s power grew

Nobles supported their king!

Effects
slide36
-Christianity in M.Ages-

(Many were Christian but there were also Muslims and Jews)

Christian belief grew so strong M.Ages became know as

Age of Faith

*

black death
BLACK DEATH
  • 1348- Black Plague starts in Sienna, Italy
  • Infected fleas traveled on infected rats on ships
  • Spread disease- wiped out 1/3 of Europe’s entire population
  • Spread as far as Africa and Baghdad
  • Black Flags were flown to warn visitors of plague in the town
  • Lasted for 130 years