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Welcome to MM150!

Unit 2 Seminar

To resize your pods:

Place your mouse here.

Left mouse click and hold.

Drag to the right to enlarge the pod.

To maximize chat, minimize roster by clicking here

MM150 Unit 2 Seminar Agenda

- Welcome
- Sections 2.1 - 2.4

Definition of Set

- Set: Collection of objects which are called elements or members of the set.

For example: United States is a collection of 50 states and District of Columbia.

(50 states and District of Columbia are the elements/members)

Roster Form Notation

- When elements are listed inside a pair of curly braces { } separated by a comma. Sets are generally named with capital letters. For example:
- H = {h, e, a, t, r}
- T = {t, o, d}
- O = {1, 3, 5, 7, ...}
- S = {Elm, Oak, Palm, Fig}

4

Order of Elements in Sets

- D = {Lab, Golden Retriever, Boxer}

Can the elements of D be rewritten as

- D = {Boxer, Golden Retriever, Lab}?

Yes! Order of elements in a set is not important.

5

Natural Numbers inRoster Notation

- N = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...}

If we do not put the elements in increasing order, how would we handle it to make sense?

- N = {5, 2, 4, 1, 3, ...}

In this case the ellipses are meaningless as there is no pattern to follow.

6

Set-Builder Notation

- D = { x | Condition(s) }
- Set D is the set of all elements x such that the conditions that must be met

Change from set-builder notation to roster notation.X = {x | x is a vowel}.

Change from roster notation to set-builder notation.T = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}.

Change from roster notation to set-builder notation.T = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}.

12

Equality of Sets

- N = {n, u, m, b, e, r}
- M = {r, e, b, m, u, n}
- Does N = M?
- Yes, they have exactly the same elements. Remember, order does not matter.

13

Cardinal Number

- For a set A, symbolized by n(A)
- Let B = {Criminal Justice, Accounting, Education}
- n(B) = 3

14

Equivalence of Sets

- Set A is equivalent to set B if and only if n(A) = n(B).
- A = {Oscar, Ernie, Bert, Big Bird}
- B = {a, b, c}
- C = {1, 2, 3, 4}
- EVERYONE: Which two sets are equivalent?

15

Proper Subset

- N ⊂ P
- Every element of N is an element of P and N ≠ P.
- REMEMBER: the empty set is a subset of every set, including itself!

17

Distinct Subsets of a Finite Set

- 2n, where n is the number of elements in the set.
- To complete a project for work, you can choose to work alone or pick a team of your coworkers: Jon, Kristen, Susan, Andy and Holly. How many different ways can you choose a team to complete the project?
- There are 5 coworkers so n = 5.
- 25 = 32

18

Subsets of Team from slide 17

- { }
- Subsets with 1 element {J}, {K}, {S}, {A}, {H}
- Subsets with 2 elements {J, K}, {J, S}, {J, A}, {J, H}, {K, S}, {K, A}, {K, H}, {S, A}, {S, H}, {A, H}
- Subsets with 3 elements {J, K, S}, {J, K, A}, {J, K, H}, {J, S, A}, {J, S, H}, {J, A, H}, {K, S, A}, {K, S, H}, {K, A, H}, {S, A, H}
- Subsets with 4 elements {J, K, S, A}, {J, K, S, H}, {J, K, A, H}, {J, S, A, H}, {K, S, A, H}
- Subsets with 5 elements {J, K, S, A, H}
- only 1 set is not proper, the set itself!

19

Complement of a Set

U = {x | x is a letter of the alphabet}

V = {a,e,i,o,u}

Shaded part is V’, or the complement of V.

U

V

Intersection

The intersection of sets A and B, symbolized by A ∩ B, is the set containing all the elements that are common to both set A and set B.

U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …, 100} A ∩ B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}

B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, …, 100}

U

11

13

15

…

99

12

14

…

100

2

4

6

8

10

- 3 5
- 7 9

A

B

Union

The union of set A and B, symbolized by A U B, is the set containing all the elements that are members of set A or of set B or of both.

U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, …, 100} A U B = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,

A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} 8,9,10,12,14,

B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, …, 100} 16, …, 100}

U

11

13

15

…

99

12

14

…

100

2

4

6

8

10

- 3 5
- 7 9

A

B

24

The Relationship betweenn(A U B), n(A), n(B)and n(A ∩ B)

- For any finite sets A and B,

n(A U B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A ∩ B)

By subtracting the number of elements in the intersection, you get rid of any duplicates that are in both sets A and B.

Page 94 #100

At Henniger High School, 46 students sang in the chorus or played in the stage band, 30 students played in the stage band, and 4 students sang in the chorus and played in the stage band. How many students sang in the chorus?

A = sang in chorus A U B = chorus or band

B = played in stage band A ∩ B = chorus and band

n(A U B) = n(A) + n(B) – n(A ∩ B)

46 = n(A) + 30 - 4

46 = n(A) + 26

20 = n(A) 20 students sang in chorus

Difference

The difference of two sets A and B, symbolized A – B, is the set of elements that belong to set A but not to set B.

A – B = {x | x E A and x ∉ B}

U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

A = {1, 2, 3, 4}

B = {1, 3, 5, 7} A – B = {2, 4}

U = {x | x is a letter of the alphabet}A = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h}B = {r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z}

A’ ∩ B =

A’ = {I,j,k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z}

B = {r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z}

Union wants what is common to both

A’ ∩ B = {r,s,t,u,v,w,x,y,z}

U = {100, 200, 300, 400, …, 1000}A = {100, 200, 300, 400, 500}B = {500, 1000}

(A U B)’ =

A U B = {100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 1000}

The union wants the elements in one set or both.

(A U B)’ = {600, 700, 800, 900}

The complement wants what is in the Universal set, but not in the union.

U = {20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30}R = {22, 23, 26, 28, 29}S = {21, 22, 24, 28, 30}

R – S’

R = {22, 23, 26, 28, 29}

S’ = {20, 23, 25, 26, 27, 29}

R – S’ = {22, 28}

The difference wants elements in R but not in S’.

General Procedure for Constructing Venn Diagrams with Three Sets A, B, and C

- Determine the elements to be placed in region V by finding the elements that are common to all three sets,

A ∩ B ∩ C.

- Determine the elements to be place in region II. Find the elements in A ∩ B. The elements in this set belong in regions II and V. Place the elements in the set A ∩ B that are not listed in region V in region II. The elements in regions IV and VI are found in a similar manner.
- Determine the elements to be placed in region I by determining the elements in set A that are not in regions II, IV, and V. The elements in regions III and VII are found in a similar manner.
- Determine the elements to be placed in region VIII by finding the elements in the universal set that are not in regions I through VII.

Page 100 #10

Construct a Venn diagram illustrating the following sets.

U = {DE, PA, NJ, GA, CT, MA, MD, SC, NH, VA, NY, NC, RI}

A = {NY, NJ, PA, MA, NH} B = {DE, CT, GA, MD, NY, RI}

C = {NY, SC, RI, MA}

U

DE CT GA MD

NJ PA NH

A

B

NY

RI

VA NC

MA

SC

C

Verifying (A U B)’ = A’ ∩ B’

A U B -> regions II, V A’ -> regions III, VI, VII, VIII

(A U B)’ -> regions I, III, IV, VI, VII, VIII B’ -> regions I, IV, VII, VIII

A’ U B’ - >regions I, III, IV, VI, VII, VIII

U

A

B

I

II

III

V

IV

VI

VII

VIII

C

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