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Plant Toxins. Michelle I. Javier Bachelor in Science in Chemistry For Teachers. What is Toxin ?.

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Plant Toxins

Michelle I. Javier

Bachelor in Science in Chemistry For Teachers

what is toxin
What is Toxin?
  • A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόνtoxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; man-made substances created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919).
calabar bean physostigma venenosum
Calabar Bean(PhysostigmaVenenosum)
  • It is a seed of leguminous plant.
  • It is commonly found in the tropical part of Africa.
  • The plant is a large, herbaceous, climbing 

perennial, with the stem woody at the base, up to 2 inches (5 cm) in diameter; it has a habit like the scarlet runner, and attains a height of about 50 feet (15 m).

  • Physostigmine is used to treat myasthenia gravis, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease and delayed gastric emptying. It has been shown to improve short term memory (Krus et al. 1968).
  • Recently, it has begun to be used in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension.
cichona tree cinchona rubra
Cichona Tree(Cinchona Rubra)
  • The Cinchona plants are large shrubs or small trees with evergreen foliage, growing 5–15 m (16–49 ft) in height. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate and 10–40 cm long.
  • The flowers are white, pink or red, produced in terminal panicles. The fruit is a small capsule containing numerous seeds.
  • Antimalarial
  •  analgesic (painkilling),
  • anti-inflammatoryproperties
  • treat lupus and arthritis
  • Tonic Water

from the castor oil plant Ricinuscommunis, is a highly toxic, naturally occurring protein.

  • treatment of cancer
  • toxic dust or as a coating for bullets and shrapnel
clostridium tetani
Clostridium Tetani
  •  is a rodshaped ,anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium
  • Its appearance is like a  tennis rackets or drumsticks.
  • C. tetani is found as spores in soil or in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. C. tetani produces a potent biological toxin,tetanospasmin
botulinum toxin
Botulinum Toxin
  •  is a protein and neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.
  • Botulinumtoxin can cause botulism, a serious and life-threatening illness in humans and animals
  • Cervical Dystonia
  • Chronic Migraine
  • Bruxism

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