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Plant toxins John Carlo Macuja Jackielyn Ocbina III-BSCT. Chemical and Molecular Toxicology. Western Water Hemlock. Kingdom-  Plantae Subkingdom-  Tracheobionta Superdivision- Spermatophyta Division-  Magnoliophyta Class-  Magnoliopsida Order- Apiales Family-  Apiaceae.

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western water hemlock
Western Water Hemlock
  • Kingdom-  Plantae
  • Subkingdom-  Tracheobionta
  • Superdivision- Spermatophyta
  • Division-  Magnoliophyta
  • Class-  Magnoliopsida
  • Order- Apiales
  • Family-  Apiaceae
western water hemlock1
Western Water Hemlock
  • Scientic Name: Cicuta douglasii
  • Western water hemlock is a poisonous plant in the family Apiaceae. It is a perennial plant that grows in wet places such as marshes, stream banks, slough margins, ditches, meadows, and wet pastures
  • It is the most poisonous plant in North America.
western water hemlock3
Western Water Hemlock
  • Toxin- cicutoxin
  • Cicutoxin is the poisonous substance found in water hemlock (Cicuta species).
  • It is a natural product structurally related to the oenanthotoxin of hemlock water dropwort.
western water hemlock4
Western Water Hemlock
  • Cicutoxin is a yellowish liquid that is prevalent in the roots.
western water hemlock5
Western Water Hemlock

It is an unsaturated alcohol

western water hemlock6
Western Water Hemlock
  • Oenanthotoxin is found in the plant hemlock water dropwort
western water hemlock7
Western Water Hemlock

Effects in the body

  • Its primary effect is the disruption of the central nervous system.
  • Cicutoxin acts as a non-competitive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonist.
  • Cicutoxin acts on the GABAA receptor causing a block of the chloride channel which results in neuronal depolarization.
western water hemlock8
Western Water Hemlock
  • GABAA receptor
  • In the presence of cicutoxin this depolarization continues unabated causing cell overactivity. The hyperactivity in brain cells results in seizures
western water hemlock9
Western Water Hemlock

Symptoms

  • Signs of poisoningcanoccurwithin 15 mins
  • This includenausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle twitch, rapid pulse, rapid breathing, tremors, seizures, excessive salivation or frothing of the mouth, and dilation of pupils
western water hemlock10
Western Water Hemlock
  • Symptoms
  • Deaths usually occur from respiratory failure or cardiac arrest
  • Treatment
  • Initial treatment of poisoning may include gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal
  • There is no specific antidote for water hemlock poisoning and treatment mainly consists of supportive care