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South-South Migration between Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean: PowerPoint Presentation
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South-South Migration between Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean:

South-South Migration between Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean:

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South-South Migration between Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean:

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  1. Interregional Workshop on International Migration Geneva, 22 September 2011 Challenges and Opportunities South-South Migration between Africa, Latin America & the Caribbean: Susanne Melde Research Officer

  2. Outline • Introduction • Intra- and inter-regional migration • Regional and national frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa and LAC • Challenges and opportunities • Conclusions

  3. 1. Introduction • What is the ‘South’? • The migration and development debate: - the South- North bias - the highly- skilled bias • Notions of mobility and migration

  4. 1. INTRODUCTION: SOUTH-SOUTH MIGRATION & DEVELOPMENT • The importance of South-South migration (2005): • Almost 50 % of emigrantsfromdeveloping countries resided in developing countries in 2005 • - almost 65% in sub-SaharanAfrica in 2010 (WB, 2010) and 60% in LAC in 2000 (SICREMI, 2011) • Over 80 % of South-South migration estimated to take place betweenneighbouring countries • (Ratha and Shaw, 2007) • Large internalmovements • Often overlooked in research and policies: • Possible contribution of South-South migration to human development

  5. 2. MIGRATION WITHIN AFRICA & AFRICA – LAC • Intra-regional: • Migration poles in sub-Saharan Africa: • Côte d’Ivoire, South Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia • (WB, 2010) • Migration poles in Latin America & the Caribbean: • Argentina, RepúblicaBolivariana de Venezuela, Mexico, Brazil, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Chile, Paraguay and Bolivia (WB, 2010; SICREMI, 2011)

  6. 2. MIGRATION BETWEEN AFRICA & AFRICA – LAC • Inter-regional: • Africa- LAC routes • - Africa – South America (e.g. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador) • - Transit from Africa via Andean countries towards the US and Canada(preliminary data of IOM study, forthcoming) • - West Africa – Caribbean: anecdotal evidence •  Relatively small compared to intra-regional but emerging trend • LAC – Africa: e.g. Cuban doctors in South Africa, • Brazilians in Angola • Other important trends: • Africans in China; Chinese and Indians in Africa; Chinese, Indians and Filipinos in LAC • Lack of data

  7. 2. MOBILITY OF THE HIGHLY SKILLED • … also among developing countries: • Towards the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (9.6 million highly skilled immigrants in 2000), Malaysia, Taiwan Province of China • ... South Africa (1.3 million in 2000) • Within the Caribbean • (80% received tertiary education, • Mac Andrew, 2011) • About 17.5 % of immigrants are • tertiary educated • (Docquier and Marfouk, 2005) •  Mainly intra-regional flows • Lower skilled migration much more important 7

  8. 3. REGIONAL AND NATIONAL FRAMEWORKS IN THE ‘SOUTH’ Immigration legislation like visa waiver in Ecuador increased African immigration Regularization of immigrants:by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, mostly concerning MERCOSUR nationals, not Africans Social integration:CARICOM Agreement on Social Security Labour mobility: -intra-regional - few bilateral agreements and - few comprehensive labour migration policies that would cover South-South movements

  9. 3. REGIONAL AND NATIONAL FRAMEWORKS IN THE ‘SOUTH’ Diaspora engagement: Emigrant ministries, high councils, diaspora desks, etc. - focus on diasporas in Europe and North America (Africa’s “6th region”) - those in the South are often overlooked Trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants: anti-TiPlegislation at national and regional level (e.g. SADC, ECOWAS, bi-regionally ECCAS – ECOWAS, OAS) Irregular migration: e.g. cooperation between Cape Verde and Brazil Refugee protection:at national level based on international frameworks, e.g. Senegalese in Argentina

  10. 3. REGIONAL AND NATIONAL FRAMEWORKS IN THE ‘SOUTH’ • Regional: • Migration and development • Mobility: Free movement of people •  Objective vs. implementation • Proliferation of sub-regional integration processes • Regional Consultative Processes on Migration • Broader development objectives, economic integration • Other (e.g. Community of Portuguese Language Countries - CPLP)

  11. 3. REGIONAL AND NATIONAL FRAMEWORKS IN THE ‘SOUTH’ -Migration frameworks at regional, bilateral or national levels, not Africa – LAC Yet global and regional human rights treaties and declarationsapply - Need for strengthening inter-regional South - South cooperation e.g. CPLP and ACP in Africa – LAC context; Third Global Meeting of Chairs and Secretariats of RCPs

  12. 4. CHALLENGES TO MAKE MIGRATION WORK FOR DEVELOPMENT • Lack of general data and research on impact of South-South (im)migration on development • Immigration in countries in the South often forgotten in policies and strategies • Obstacles to migration for lower skilled workers •  Particulargroups barred from movement (e.g. women) • High degree of informality in labour markets • Challenge protection of human rights of migrants and their families, discrimination and xenophobia • Lack of access to social protection schemes and • lack of portability of social insurance benefits

  13. 4. OPPORTUNITIES TO MAKE MIGRATION WORK FOR DEVELOPMENT • South-South cooperation has been existing for a long time • Intra-regional migration entails less distance and costs • Less cultural and linguistic differences facilitate integration and reduce psychological problems • More opportunities for lesser skilled migration • Outreach and data needs to include diasporas residing in the South Enabling environment needed •  Need to integrate the potential benefits of human mobility in national & regional development planning, in particular South-South migration 13

  14. 5. CONCLUSIONS • Often overlooked: Migration among developing countries and its development potential • Evidence needed to inform policies •  Strengthening of South-South cooperation on M&D • Importance of human rights and social protection • Decreasing costs of migration and fostering remittances • Opportunity for developing gender-sensitive policies • Encouraging inter-regional approaches to tackle • youth unemployment, informal labour markets and • the creation of employment

  15. 5. CONCLUSIONS - Continued Example of the ACP Observatory on Migration:* • Consolidating existing migration data and information on South-South migration and development • Provide policy-makers, the civil society, media and the public at large with reliable and harmonized information on migration • Creating a network of research centres, universities, government agencies, civil society, the private sector and migrant associations in the six ACP regions • Training and capacity reinforcement of multi-disciplinary South specialists and experts * The total budget for the project is 9 404 776 €. The European Union contributes with 7 994 060 € .

  16. 12 Pilot Countries of the ACP Observatory on Migration Southern Africa Kenya Senegal Angola East Africa WestAfrica Lesotho Tanzania Nigeria Trinidad & Tobago Papua New Guinea Cameroun Central Africa Pacific Caribbean DRC Timor-Leste Haiti

  17. The ACP Observatory on Migration: Facts and Figures • 24 Meetings of National Consultative Committees in 10 countries • 1.259 studies in a Compendium of research on South-South migration • 36 practionners trained in data collection on diasporas and remittances, 22 on data management software and 28 on environmental migration, internal migration and health • 7 Calls for Tenders launched for Research studies in pilot countries – 2 studies in progress

  18. Thank you Contact: ROBrusselsACP@iom.int Please visit our website: www.acpmigration-obs.org