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South America Quest . Use Your Textbook to Answer These Questions. Europeans Change the Environment. Pages 562-563. Who was El Dorado?.

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South America Quest

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    1. South America Quest Use Your Textbook to Answer These Questions

    2. Europeans Change the Environment Pages 562-563

    3. Who was El Dorado?

    4. He was a mythical king that the Native Americans said was so rich that he dusted his body with gold every morning and every evening washed the gold off in the lake.

    5. Who was inspired to explore South America because of the story of El Dorado? Where was he from?

    6. Francisco Pizarro. He was from Spain.

    7. What is a conquistador?

    8. A conqueror

    9. How was Pizarro able to take over the Incan Empire?

    10. The Incan leaders were having a bitter quarrel, and Pizarro and his men were able to take over the entire empire with a few men with muskets.

    11. Besides their desire for treasure, what reason did the Europeans have for conquering South America?

    12. They wanted to convert the Native Americans to Christianity.

    13. What was the purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas?

    14. It settled the rivalry between Spain and Portugal by establishing a Line of Demarcation. Spain gained control of the territories west of the line. Portugal gained control of the territories east of the line.

    15. Why do people in Brazil speak Portuguese instead of Spanish?

    16. Because the eastern region of South America that Portugal gained control of through the treaty of Tordesillas, eventually became modern Brazil.

    17. What types of people did the first Spanish ships bring to South America? (name 3) Why did they bring these specific types of people?

    18. soldiers: to conquer the Natives • priests: to convert the Natives to Christianity • craftspeople: to build new colonies (towns)

    19. What items did the first Spanish ships bring to South America? (name 3)

    20. tools • seeds • livestock

    21. What did the ships return to Spain with?

    22. Gold from Andean mines that were once operated by the Inca

    23. Explain how the Spanish used plazas to organize the new towns they were building in South America?

    24. Plazas were a central square and gathering place in each town. Around the plaza the Spanish built a Catholic Church, the marketplace, and government buildings .

    25. What were haciendas?

    26. Large tracts of land set aside by the Spanish government to be developed into a ranch or farm.

    27. How was the Spanish method of raising animals different from the Incan method?

    28. The Incan (Andean) people raised only a few animals including the llama. Llamas required little land for grazing. The Spanish brought cattle horses and sheep, which required thousands of acres for grazing.

    29. Why did the Native American’s not want to work on the haciendas?

    30. The Spanish forced them to work under cruel conditions.

    31. How did they attempt to escape the cruelty of the Spanish? Why was it difficult for them to survive?

    32. They fled higher into the Andean mountains where they used simple tools to produce crops in thin soils and cold mountain air.

    33. What things were produced by Spain’s haciendas and who mainly purchased them?

    34. Grain, meat, and animal skins were sold to the colonists who owned mines. They used these for the men who were working in the mines.

    35. Why was the forestry industry expanding in South America?

    36. The Spanish were searching for gold and silver, so they opened mines high up in the mountains. The mine shafts were really deep and thousands of strong timbers were used to support the shafts.Also, timbers were used to fuel the fires that separated the silver and gold from the ore that was dug from the mines.

    37. What are some of the ways that Spain’s search for wealth brought change to the Incan Empire and life in the Andes? (name 4)

    38. 1. Hundreds of thousands of Incans died because of diseases brought by the Spanish.2. Incans lost the political power they once had3. Almost all of them were reduced to poverty4. Haciendas and mining changed the environment

    39. The First Meeting of the Spanish and the IncaPage 564

    40. Who was Atahuallpa?

    41. The Incan emperor, conquered by Pizarro

    42. What did the Incans do when they heard that “strange men in glittering clothes had appeared in the town of Cajamarca”?

    43. Thousands of them gathered to meet them .

    44. Who did they find in the town square? What did he do?

    45. They found a single Spanish priest. He read from a document that said that they all had to submit to Spanish rule and become Christians or be killed.

    46. How did Atahuallpa react?

    47. He refused to submit and convert to Christianity.

    48. What was the result?

    49. Spanish soldiers attacked and killed over 1500 Inca.

    50. What happened to Atahuallpa?