Remember us? Id: Instincts Ego: Reality Superego: Morality
Right. Gimme food. NOW. Then let’s have some fun. Find some drink and drugs. And sex. Don’t care how you get it. Weak superego OK. Stop! It’s wrong!
Deviant superego We’re skint, guys, but I could always rob someone. I’m hungry. Get some food. OK by me.
Excessively strong superego (1) You revolting, filthy WORM! You DISGUST me! I can’t even bear to share a psyche with you! You’re SCUM! No-one ever listens to me. I am unworthy and I must be PUNISHED!
Don’t even think about listening to him. Nothing good will come of it. Pretend he’s not there. Don’t even think about listening to him. Nothing good will come of it. Pretend he’s not there. Excessively strong superego (2) NOW EVERYONE’S GONNA DIE! I am feeling very calm. La lala. I am feeling very calm. La lala.
‘Overcontrolled’ violent offenders • Megargee (1966) • Case studies of extremely violent offenders • Low aggression before and after • ‘Strangulated affect’ – expression of anger inhibited until it all comes out at once • Some evidence, but a minority of offenders • Question of whether anger is repressed or unacknowledged
‘Affectionless psychopathy’ • What did John Bowlby suggest about the causes of deviant behaviour? • Disruption of prototypical attachment relationship • Impaired ability to relate to others • Affectionless character – antisocial behaviour
‘Affectionless psychopathy’ • What evidence did Bowlby put forward to support his theory? • ‘44 Thieves’ study of delinquent adolescents • What are the problems with Bowlby’s research • Poor sampling & control group matching • Deprivation, privation or distortion? • Overestimated effects in infancy
Evaluating the Freudian view • Typical student criticisms... • It’s all subjective. • The theory is unscientific. • There is no evidence for Freud’s theories. • Freud was biased. • What is wrong with these criticisms?
When evaluating Freud... • Be clear on whether you are addressing the theory or the evidence on which it is based. • Explain the nature of your criticism. • Don’t make sweeping statements, especially if they aren’t true. • Play the ball, not the man.