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Musculoskeletal System

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  1. 4 Musculoskeletal System

  2. Multimedia Directory Slide 81 Chiropractic Medicine Video Slide 94 Fracture Animation Slide 97 Osteoporosis Video Slide 105 Arthritis Video Slide 112 Arthroscopy Video Slide 140 Muscles Animation Slide 157 Humerus Adduction/Abduction Animation Slide 159 Elbow Flexion/Extension Animation Slide 161 Ankle Dorsiflexion and Plantar Flexion Animation Slide 164 Ankle Inversion and Eversion Animation Slide 166 Elbow Pronation and Supination Animation Slide 168 Humerus Circumduction Animation Slide 169 Hand Opposition Animation Slide 170 Humerus Rotation Animation

  3. Multimedia Directory Continued Slide 182 Muscle Atrophy Video Slide 189 Muscular Dystrophy Video Slide 191 Carpal Tunnel Video Slide 192 Carpal Tunnel Animation

  4. Skeletal System at a Glance • Functions of Skeletal System • Internal framework of body • Supports body • Protects internal organs • Point of attachment for muscles • Produces blood cells • Stores minerals

  5. Skeletal System at a Glance • Organs of Skeletal System • Bones of the skeleton • Joints

  6. Skeletal System Illustrated

  7. Skeletal System Combining Forms • ankyl/o – stiff joint • arthr/o – joint • articul/o – joint • burs/o – sac • carp/o – wrist • cervic/o – neck • chondr/o – cartilage • clavicul/o – clavicle

  8. Skeletal System Combining Forms • coccyg/o – coccyx • cortic/o – outer portion • cost/o – rib • crani/o – skull • femor/o – femur • fibul/o – fibula • humer/o – humerus • ili/o – ilium

  9. Skeletal System Combining Forms • ischi/o – ischium • kyph/o – hump • lamin/o – lamina, part of vertebra • lord/o – bent backwards • lumb/o – low back, loin • mandibul/o – mandible • maxill/o – maxilla • medull/o – inner portion

  10. Skeletal System Combining Forms • metacarp/o – metacarpals • metatars/o – metatarsals • myel/o – bone marrow • orth/o – straight • oste/o – bone • patell/o – patella • ped/o – foot, child • pelv/o – pelvis

  11. Skeletal System Combining Forms • phalang/o – phalanges • pod/o – foot • prosthet/o – addition • pub/o – pubis • radi/o – radius, ray • sacr/o – sacrum • sarc/o – flesh • scapul/o – scapula

  12. Skeletal System Combining Forms • scoli/o – crooked, bent • spin/o – spine • spondyl/o – vertebrae • stern/o – sternum • synovi/o – synovial membrane • synov/o – synovial membrane • tars/o – ankle • thorac/o – chest

  13. Skeletal System Combining Forms • tibi/o – tibia • uln/o – ulna • vertebr/o – vertebra

  14. Skeletal System Suffixes • –blast immature, embryonic • –clasia to break surgically • –desis stabilize, fuse • –listhesis slipping • –porosis porous

  15. Anatomy and Physiology • Bones are body organs with blood supply, nerves, and lymphatic vessels • Bones are connected to each other to form skeleton • Framework for the body • 206 bones

  16. Anatomy and Physiology • Red bone marrow within bones produces blood cells • Bones also: • Protect vital organs • Store minerals

  17. Anatomy and Physiology • Joint • Place where two bones meet • Held together by ligaments • Gives flexibility to skeleton

  18. Bones • Also called osseous tissue • One of hardest materials in body • Formed from gradual process before birth called ossification • Fetal skeleton is formed from a cartilage model

  19. Bones • Flexible tissue is gradually replaced by osteoblasts (immature bone cells) • In adult bones osteoblasts mature into osteocytes • Formation of strong bones dependant on adequate supply of minerals

  20. Four Shapes of Bones

  21. Figure 4.1Classification of bones by shape.

  22. Long Bones Majority of bones in body Divided into: Diaphysis Epiphysis

  23. Diaphysis • Central sht • Medullary cavity • Open canal within diaphysis • Contains yellow bone marrow • Mostly fat

  24. Epiphysis Wide ends of long bone Distal epiphysis Proximal epiphysis Articular cartilage Covers epiphysis Prevents bone rubbing on bone

  25. Periosteum Covers surface of bone not covered by articular cartilage Thin connective tissue membrane Contains numerous nerve and lymphatic vessels

  26. Compact Bone Also called cortical bone Very dense and hard Outer layer of bone Found in both epiphysis and diaphysis

  27. Cancellous Bone Also called spongy bone Found inside bone Has spaces containing red bone marrow Manufactures blood cells

  28. Figure 4.2Components of a long bone.

  29. Bony Processes • Projection from the surface of a bone • Rough processes provide place for muscle attachment • Smooth rounded processes articulate with another bone in a joint • Named for shape and location

  30. Common Bony Processes

  31. Figure 4.3Bony processes found on the femur.

  32. Bony Depressions

  33. The Skeleton • Skeleton has two divisions • Axial skeleton • Appendicular skeleton

  34. Axial Skeleton • Includes bones in: • Head • Neck • Spine • Chest • Trunk

  35. Figure 4.4Bones of the axial skeleton.

  36. The Skull • Is divided into two parts • Cranium • Facial bones • Protects brain, eyes, ears, nasal cavity, and oral cavity • Attachment for muscles of chewing and turning the head

  37. Cranium • Frontal – 1 • Forehead • Parietal – 2 • Upper sides and roof of skull • Temporal – 2 • Sides & base of skull

  38. Cranium • Ethmoid – 1 • Part of eye orbit, nose, & floor of skull • Sphenoid – 1 • Part of floor of skull • Occipital – 1 • Back & base of skull

  39. Figure 4.5Bones of the skull.

  40. Facial Bones • Mandible – 1 • Lower jawbone • Maxilla – 1 • Upper jawbone • Zygomatic – 2 • Cheek bones • Vomer – 1 • Part of nasal septum

  41. Facial Bones • Palatine – 1 • Hard palate and floor of nose • Nasal – 2 • Part of nasal septum and bridge of nose • Lacrimal – 2 • Inner corner of eye

  42. Figure 4.5Bones of the skull.

  43. Hyoid Bone • Single U-shaped bone • In neck between mandible and larynx • Attachment point for swallowing and speech muscles

  44. The Trunk • Vertebral column • Sternum • Rib cage

  45. The Vertebral Column • Divided into five sections • Cervical • Thoracic • Lumbar • Sacrum • Coccyx

  46. The Vertebral Column • Cervical • 7 vertebrae of neck • Thoracic • 12 vertebrae of chest • Lumbar • 5 vertebrae of low back

  47. The Vertebral Column • Sacrum • 5 fused vertebrae at base of spine • Coccyx • 3–5 small vertebrae attached to sacrum

  48. Figure 4.6Divisions of the vertebral column.

  49. The Rib Cage • 12 pairs of ribs • Attached to vertebral column at back • Provides support for organs, such as heart and lungs

  50. The Rib Cage • True ribs • 10 pairs attached to sternum in front • Floating ribs • Inferior 2 pairs • No attachment in front