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OE vocabulary

OE vocabulary

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OE vocabulary

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  1. OE vocabulary

  2. OE vocabulary • OE - relatively few borrowings; most words werenative (i.e. Germanic); • Many words - almost identical: • hand, winter, under; • Some words - similar form, but different meaning: • brēad (piece), drēam (joy), sellan (give), winnan (fight); • Some words - limited context(fixedexpressions/collocatins/idioms): • bridegroom, werewolf, Yuletide; • Many OE words did not survive: • blīcan (shine), here (army), racu (explanation);

  3. OE - borrowings • Latin: • before OE (Romans  Germanic tribes): • trade: Lat vīnum  OE wīn • military: Lat vallum  OE weall • OE (Anglo-Saxons): • learned loanwords: Lat scrīnium  OE scrīn, Lat schola  OE scōl • Celtic: • place names: Avon, Dover, London • Lat  Celtic  OE: -ceaster, -coln

  4. OE - borrowings • Old Norse • Most ON words in OE were unwritten until ME • Many loanwords = cognates: • substitution OE sweoster/ON systir • bifurcation OE scyrte/ON skirta • other examples; • call • take • give • they – them – their • vind + auga (window)

  5. ME vocabulary

  6. ME lexicon - borrowings • Latin (often via Fr) • religion: pulpit, scripture, • law: conviction, commit, legitimate • education: library, index, scribe • science: medicine, equal, recipe • Greek • via Lat: chaos, history • via Fr: chronicle, dragon,

  7. Engnobilesused many FrwordswhilespeakingEng ME lexicon - borrowings • French (esp. 1250 – 1400) • administration: government, country, royal • law: crime, court, judge • religion: preach, saint • military: castle, captain, soldier • food: beef, fry, fruit • education: literature, letter • …

  8. ModEvocabulary

  9. ModE - borrowings • Latin (science, geography, medicine): • peninsula, library, delirium… • Greek: • many words via Lat & Fr: rhythm, barbarous, machine… • French (social life, art): • ModE: cigarette, police, camouflage, cliché… • ME vs. ModE: chief vs. chef

  10. ModE - borrowings • Spanish & Portuguese (trade, nature): • alligator, chocolate, embargo, potato, tornado… • Italian (art, food, social life): • piano, opera, balloon, casino, fresco,influenza, broccoli… • Dutch (trade, navy): • deck, iceberg, smuggle, booze, • Br colonies: • jungle (Hindu), bazaar (Persian), tea (Chinese), rattan (Malay), boomerang (Austr), banana (W Afr)