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The OE vocabulary and its etymological characteristics

The OE vocabulary and its etymological characteristics

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The OE vocabulary and its etymological characteristics

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  1. The OE vocabulary and its etymological characteristics

  2. Common IE Nouns: • fæder, mōdor, dohtor, sweostar, sunu • heorte, nosu, tōð, fōt Adjectives: - rea:d, mycel, nīwe Numerals Pronouns: ic, þū, wē, sē, hwā Verbs: standan, sittan, etan, bēōn

  3. Common Germanic: • hēāfod, hand, finger • cealf • gear, wicu, tīma, dæg, sumor • hūs, rum • grēn, bleo • lŷtel, hēāh • hīēran, sēōn, sprecan

  4. Specifically OE: • wimman (wīf + mann) • hlāford (hlāf +weard) • ealne weg (eal + weg)

  5. Word-formation • simple words • derived words • compound words

  6. Ways of word formation

  7. Prefixes • ā-, be-, for-, fore-, ge-, ofer-, un- • gān – go • ā-gān – go away • be- gān – go round • fore- gān – precede • ofergān – pass over

  8. Noun suffixes • -end (frēond) (dead suffix) • –ere: fiscere, bōcere (fisher, baker) • Feminine of –ere - –ester webbestre • dōm, scipe, hād

  9. Noun suffixes • –ing: cyning, Centing • þ: lang- lengþu strong – strengþu • Ung/-ing wilnian – wilnung

  10. Suffixes to form adjectives • ig (hālig) • -isc (English) • -ede (hōcede- hooked) • -sum • -en • - lic • - lic + -e turned the adjective into an adverb frēondlic- frēondlice.

  11. Adjectives used as suffixes: • full • lēas – “deprived of” (less): sāwollēas (lifeless)

  12. Word composition • eorþcræft – geometry • hūsbonda • hāligdæg • – gōdspel – gospel (spel – tidings –news), • sunnandæg – sun’s +day

  13. 1. What are the three etymological layers that compose the OE vocabulary? 1. Point out 3 levels of Latin borrowing into OE.

  14. 2. What was the most productive way of word derivation in OE? 2. What are the means of enriching vocabulary in any language?

  15. Loan words (borrowings) Latin borrowings – 2 layers: • before the migration of the Germanic tribes to the British Isles and then through Celtic • religious vocabulary Celtic borrowings

  16. OE in Modern English • 24, 000 different lexical items in OE corpus • About 85 per cent of OE words are no longer in usenow • 3 per cent of the words in OE are loan words • Today 70 per centare loan words

  17. 50% of loan words are Latin and French • influx

  18. Anglo-Saxon vocabulary today • grammatical words • lexical words • affixes(mis-, un-, -ness, -less) • million-word Brown University corpus • Scandinavian: they are • Romance: 105 (just) and 107 (people).