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J oe Pistack MS/ED

Integumentary System and Body Temperature-Chapter 7. J oe Pistack MS/ED. Integumentary system includes: The skin Accessory structures:- sweat glands -oil glands - _________

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J oe Pistack MS/ED

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  1. Integumentary System and Body Temperature-Chapter 7 Joe Pistack MS/ED

  2. Integumentary system includes: The skin Accessory structures:- sweat glands -oil glands - _________ - _________ Integumentary System

  3. The skin performs the following functions: • Keeps harmful ______ out of the body and helps retain ______ and electrolytes. • Protects the internal structures and ______ from injuries due to blows, cuts, harsh chemicals, sunlight burns, and ______ microorganisms. • Performs an ______ function. Secretes water and small amounts of urea. Functions of skin

  4. Acts as a gland by synthesizing vitamin ______ . Vitamin D is necessary for absorption of calcium from the digestive tract. Performs a sensory role by housing the sensory ______ for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature. Plays an important role in the regulation of body ______ . Functions of the skin

  5. Skin: Considered an organ Also called integument or cutaneous membrane Skin has 2 layers: ______ -outer layer ______ -inner layer Dermatology-the study of skin and skin disorders. Structure of the skin

  6. Epidermis-thin ______ layer of skin. Composed of ______ squamous epithelium. Has no blood supply of it’s own, so it’s ______ . ______ and nutrients diffuse into the epidermis from blood supply from the dermis. Layers of skin

  7. The epidermis can be divided into 5 layers the two of interest here are the deeper stratum ______ and the more superficial stratum corneum 1.Stratum ______ - -lies on top of the dermis. -has access to a rich supply of blood. -cells of this layer constantly divide, push old cells to the surface. Layers of skin

  8. Changes take place as cells move away from surface: 1. cells begin to die 2. ______ takes place ______ -process whereby tough protein called keratin is deposited within the cell, keratin ______ and ______ the cells as they move toward surface. This makes the skin ______ - ______. Layers of skin

  9. Stratum Corneum: • Surface layer of the epidermis. • Composed of about ______ layers of dead cells. • Dead cells are continuously sloughed off. • Sloughed cells are called ______ , and______ when clumped by oil on the skull. Layers of the skin

  10. ______ perspiration-500ml/day of perspiration that is lost through the skin. ______ perspiration-due to activity of the sweat glands. If the epidermis is damaged, the rate of ______ perspiration increases. E.g. burns Levels of skin

  11. Dermis: • Located under the epidermis. • Largest portion of the skin • Composed of dense, fibrous, ______ tissue. • Contains collagen and elastin fibers that make the skin strong and stretchable. E.g. Pregnancy Levels of skin

  12. Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis: • Not considered part of the skin, • Lies under the skin. • Composed primarily of loose ______ and adipose tissue. Layers of skin

  13. Subcutaneous tissue performs two main roles: • 1. Helps to insulate the body from extreme ______ changes in the external environment. • 2. Anchors the skin to the underlying structures. • Several areas of the body have no subcutaneous layer and are anchored directly to bone • Drugs are administered (SubQ) because hypodermis has a rich supply of ______ vessels. Layers of skin

  14. Layers of skin

  15. SQ injections 22 to20 ga. 5/8 to 3/4 long

  16. Skin color is determined by: Genetic factors Physiological factors Disease ______ -skin cells within the epidermal layer. ______ -darkening pigment, stains the surrounding cells causing them to darken. Skin color

  17. The more melanin, the ______ the skin. Amount of melanin secreted determines the skin color. Exposure to ______ sunlight increases the secretion of melanin=suntan. Skin color

  18. Conditions involving malfunctioning melanocyte: ______- melanocytes fail to secrete melanin. - skin, hair, and iris (colored part of eye) are white. ______ -loss of pigment in certain areas of skin. -creates patches of white skin. ______and ______ : -Areas in the skin where melanin is concentrated ______melanoma -A mole that has changed in character and has become cancerous Malfunctioning melanocyte

  19. Carotene-yellowish pigment to skin. ______ -blue look to skin, result of poorly oxygenated blood. ______ -dilation of the blood vessels. ______ -constriction of blood vessels, decrease in oxygenated blood. Skin conditions

  20. Accessory structures include: - hair - nails - glands Hairless body parts: ______ of hands, ______ of feet, lips, nipples, and parts of the external reproductive organs. Accessory structures

  21. Chief parts: ______ -part above the surface of the skin. ______ -part that extends from the dermis to the surface. ______ ______ -formed by downward extension of epithelial cells. Parts of hair

  22. Functions: ______ and ______ -protect the eyes from dust and perspiration. Nasal ______ trap dust and prevent it from entering the lungs. Hair of the scalp keeps us warm. Functions of hair

  23. Hair ______ -influenced by sex hormones. Puberty-growth of hair in axillary and pubic areas in male and females. ______ -excessive hair growth in females, caused by too much testosterone. Function of hair

  24. Epidermal cells –receive blood supply from the dermal blood vessels. Keratinization of cells- cells die as they move away from their source of nourishment. Hair that we brush, blow dry, and curl is ______ . Hair Follicle

  25. Hair color: Genetically controlled by the amount of ______ . Abundance of melanin- ______ hair. Less melanin- ______ hair. Absence of melanin- ______ hair. Hair color

  26. Shape of the hair shaft: Determines the appearance of hair. Round shaft produces straight hair. Oval shaft produces wavy hair. Flat hair shafts produce curly and kinky hair. Shape of hair

  27. Hair Follicle

  28. ______ ______ muscle- attached to the hair follicle. Bundle of smooth muscle fibers, when these muscles ______ , hair stands on end. Contract when cold or frightened. Also called ______ ______ . Hair follicle

  29. Hair standing on end

  30. ______ -loss of hair. • Male-pattern baldness • most common type. • Characterized by a gradual loss of hair. • Drug toxicity • second most common type. • Eg. ______ , ______ . Alopecia

  31. Hair loss from radiation

  32. Nails: Thin plates of stratified squamous epithelial cells. Contain a hard form of keratin. Found on the ______ end of the fingers and toes. Protect structures from injury. nails

  33. Structure: • Free edge • Nail body (finger nail) • Nail root Nail structure

  34. Nail growth-determined by half-moon shaped ______ located at the base of the nail. As nail grows, it slides over the ______ . Underlying dermal layer contains blood vessels which give ______ color to nail. ______ -fold of stratum corneum-grows onto proximal portion of the nail body. Nail structure

  35. Nail structure

  36. ______

  37. nails

  38. Assessment of the nails should include: -shape -how they are cut -type of manicure -dorsal curvature -adhesion to the nail bed -color -thickness -male/female assessment

  39. ______ -condition that indicates fingertips have received an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood over a period of time. ______ become large, nails become think, hard, shiny and curved at the free end. Causes-chronic ______ and ______ disease. Nail conditions

  40. Clubbing of fingers

  41. Cyanosis-poor oxygenation makes the blood appear ______ , this in turn makes the nails appear bluish. Nail abuse-trauma to the nail that causes the nail to ______ and hypertrophy. ______ - generally due to poor oxygenation or poor nutrition, or anemias. cyanosis

  42. Cyanosis

  43. Two major glands: ______ glands ______ glands ______ glands or oil glands-associated with the hair follicles, found in all body areas that have hair. ______ -oily substance that flows into hair follicle or onto surface of skin. glands

  44. Function: Sebum lubricates and helps waterproof skin and hair. Inhibits ______ on the surface of the skin. Production ______ with aging, results in dry skin and brittle hair. ______ ______ -cream cheese covering that babies are born with, secreted by sebaceous glands. glands

  45. Glands can become blocked by accumulating sebum and debris. • A ______ forms when sebum is exposed to air and dries out • A pimple forms when the blocked sebum becomes infected with ______ -it becomes a pustule Glands

  46. Sebaceous glands

  47. Sweat glands or ______ glands: • Located in the dermis. • Secrete ______ . • Sweat is secreted into a ______ that opens onto the skin as a pore. • We have approximately three million sweat glands. Sweat glands

  48. Two types of sweat glands: 1) ______ glands-usually associated with the hair follicles, found in the axillary and genital areas. • Respond to emotional ______ and become activated when a person is frightened, upset, in pain or sexually excited. • Become activated during ______ .(a time in your life) Sweat glands

  49. ______ ______ - occurs when the substances in sweat are degraded by bacteria into chemicals with a strong unpleasant odor. 2) Eccrine glands-more numerous and widely distirubuted throughout the body. Especially numerous on the forehead, neck, back, upper lip, palms, and soles. Sweat glands

  50. Eccrine glands: • Not associated with hair ______ . • Sweat that is secreted plays an important role in ______ ______ . • As sweat evaporates on the skin, ______ is lost. • ______ perspiration-secreted by the eccrine glands, can secrete a gallon of sweat per hour. Glands

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