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OE Verb PowerPoint Presentation

OE Verb

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OE Verb

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  1. OE Verb • Hīe geweorc geworhten hæfdon • ‘they have built a fortress’ • bēōn, weorþan + a present participle

  2. Stong verbs in OE = irregular verbs in ME • Ring => Rang => Rung • iau • Four stems: Infinitive, Past Singular, Past Plural, Participle II • 7 classes • Class 7 - reduplicating verbs

  3. Strong verbs Class I: bite = bitan Class II: fly = flēon Class III: spring = springan Class IV: come = cuman Class V: give = giefan Class VI: take = tacan Class VII: hold = healdan

  4. Class 1 • Bītanbātbitonbiten • ī - ā - i - I Class 7 Healdanheoldheoldonhealden

  5. Weak verbs • No Ablaut • 3 classes • 3 stems • –d- or –t- • Class 1 Cēpan cēpte cēped (keep)

  6. Variant 1 • What were the grammatical categories of OE adjectives? Variant 2 • In which case was an adjective declined strong? Variant 3 • In which case was an adjective declined weak?

  7. Variant 1 2. How many stems did the OE strong verbs have? (give a list) Variant 2 2. Which was the regular way of forming the degrees of comparison? Variant 3 2. How many classes of weak verbs were distinguished in OE?

  8. What does the word “weak” and “strong” mean in such word combinations as “weak/strong nouns, verbs, adjectives”?

  9. Present-Preterites • witan (to know), • cunnan (can), • þurfan (to need), • sculan (shall), • magan (may).

  10. Witan - Present tense • Singular  • 1stPersonwat • 2nd Personwast • 3rd Personwat • Plural All Personswiton Srtong verb class 3 findan fand fundon funden

  11. Past Tense • Singular • 1st, 2nd and 3rd Persons wiste or wisse • Plural • 1st, 2nd and 3rd Persons wiste or wisse

  12. Irregular verbs • “willan” • “do” (dōn –dyde - gedōn) – • “live” (būan – būde - gebūn), • verbs with suppletive forms: • “go”(gān – ēode – gegān) • “be” (bēon and wesan)

  13. PresentPresentPast • 1st P Sg (I)eombeowæs • 2nd P Sg (you)eartbistwære • 3rd P Sgisbiðwæs • (he, she, it) • All Pluralssind/sindonbeoðwæron

  14. Non-finite forms of the verb • Infinitive • beran – uninflected Inf. (Nom) • tō berenne or tō beranne - inflected infinitive (Dat) • he cymeth tō dēmenne cwicum and dēādum

  15. Infinitive • hīe woldon hine forbærnan

  16. Participle I • –ende • berende

  17. Participle II • –en • –d/-t • ge-bunden • ā-drencen

  18. Variant 1 1) How did the present-preterite verbs build their forms? 2) How were the two participles built in OE? Variant 2 1) The present-preterite verbs correspond to ___________ verbs in Modern English. 2) What are the two forms of the infinitive in OE? How were they built?

  19. Syntax • Norþan snywde (it snowed in the North) • Ne con īc nōht singan (I cannot sing nothing)

  20. Free word order • se guma geseah þa cwēn S-V-O (the man saw the woman) • þa cwēn geseah se guma O-V-S • þa geascode he þone cyning (VSO)Then he discovered the king.

  21. Ða on morgenne gehierdon þæt þæs cyninges þegnas (VOS)Then in the morning the kings thegns heard that.

  22. God cwæþ him þus toGod said thus to him • Hie . . . þone æþeling ofslogon, ond þa men þe him mid wæron. • They . . . killed the prince and the men who were with him.

  23. Complex sentences • conjunction “þæt” and particle “þe” (“which," "that," "who" or "whom). • þæs cyninges þegnas þe him be-hindan wæron The king's thanes who were behind him.

  24. Translation • Þa: • “when” or “then” • a plural demonstrative pronoun (those) • a singular feminine demonstrative pronoun in the accusative case

  25. Translation • for þam þe – because • swa swa - “so so” or “as as,” or “just as” or “such as.” • swylce - “such,” but it very often can be translated at “likewise“

  26. Define the morphological meanings of the nouns and adjectives. • þurh (through) þīne æþelan (noble) hand • þes ealda mann • blacum wulfum

  27. dæӡ a-stem, masc, • fuӡol a-stem, masc • hēah high (accusative, masc - hēanne) • aӡen own • līf a-stem, neuter • folc a-stem, neuter • Eal all • wer a-stem, masc • bēam tree

  28. dur u-stem, feminine • burӡ root stem, feminine • rīce a-stem, neuter • elc (ælc) each • What happened with the unstressed vowel in oblique cases? • How were neuter a-stems different from masculine a-stems? • Which nouns belonged to weak declension?