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Taxonomy and Classification of Microbes (Especially Prokaryotes). The Three Domains and What Distinguishes Them Review of Characteristics of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Viruses The Taxonomic Hierarchy and Species Definitions Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes

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slide1

Taxonomy and Classification of Microbes (Especially Prokaryotes)

  • The Three Domains and What Distinguishes Them
  • Review of Characteristics of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Viruses
  • The Taxonomic Hierarchy and Species Definitions
  • Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Nine Medically Important Groups of Prokaryotes
  • Dichotomous Keys and Microbe Identification
three domain system
Three Domain System
  • Eucarya
  • Eubacteria
  • Archaea

Protista

Animalia

Fungi

Plantae

Methanogens

Halophiles

Thermoacidophiles

Gram positives

Gram negatives

Spirochetes

Cyanobacteria

  • Linear DNA chromosomes
  • Eukaryotic cell type
  • Cell walls variable if present
  • Straight chain phospholipids
  • Antibiotic insensitive
  • Methionine for first aa
  • Circular DNA chromosome
  • Prokaryotic cell type
  • No peptidoglycan in cell walls
  • Branched chain phospholipids
  • Antibiotic insensitive
  • Methionine for first aa
  • Circular DNA chromosome
  • Prokaryotic cell type
  • Peptidoglycan cell walls
  • Straight chain phospholipids
  • Antibiotic sensitive
  • F-methionine for first aa
slide4

Taxonomy and Classification of Microbes (Especially Prokaryotes)

  • The Three Domains and What Distinguishes Them
  • Review of Characteristics of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, & Viruses
  • The Taxonomic Hierarchy and Species Definitions
  • Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Nine Medically Important Groups of Prokaryotes
  • Dichotomous Keys and Microbe Identification
slide5

Review Chart of Cell Characteristics

Non-

living

Domain Eukarya

Domain Domain

Bacteria Archaea Protista Animalia Plantae Fungi Viruses

Cell type

Chromo-somes

Cell wall?

Uni/multicellular

Energy source

Example organism

slide6

Review Chart of Cell Characteristics

Non-

living

Domain Eukarya

Domain Domain

Eubacteria Archaea Protista Animalia Plantae Fungi Viruses

Cell type

Chromo-somes

Cell wall?

Uni/multicellular

Energy source

Example organism

prokaryotic prokaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic no cells

slide7

Review Chart of Cell Characteristics

Non-

living

Domain Eukarya

Domain Domain

Eubacteria Archaea Protista Animalia Plantae Fungi Viruses

Cell type

Chromo-somes

Cell wall?

Uni/multicellular

Energy source

Example organism

prokaryotic prokaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic no cells

1 Circular DNA 1 Circular DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA DNA or

in nucleoid in nucleoid in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus RNA

slide8

Review Chart of Cell Characteristics

Non-

living

Domain Eukarya

Domain Domain

Eubacteria Archaea Protista Animalia Plantae Fungi Viruses

Cell type

Chromo-somes

Cell wall?

Uni/multicellular

Energy source

Example organism

prokaryotic prokaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic no cells

1 Circular DNA 1 Circular DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA DNA or in nucleoid in nucleoid in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus RNA

yes, most of none or none none yes, of yes, of no murein pseudomurein cellulose chitin

slide9

Review Chart of Cell Characteristics

Non-

living

Domain Eukarya

Domain Domain

Eubacteria Archaea Protista Animalia Plantae Fungi Viruses

Cell type

Chromo-somes

Cell wall?

Uni/multicellular

Energy source

Example organism

prokaryotic prokaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic no cells

1 Circular DNA 1 Circular DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA DNA or in nucleoid in nucleoid in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus RNA

yes, most of none or none none yes, of yes, of no murein pseudomurein cellulose chitin

unicellular unicellular unicellular multicellular multicellular uni & multi no cells

multicell

slide10

Review Chart of Cell Characteristics

Non-

living

Domain Eukarya

Domain Domain

Eubacteria Archaea Protista Animalia Plantae Fungi Viruses

Cell type

Chromo-somes

Cell wall?

Uni/multicellular

Energy source

Example organism

prokaryotic prokaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic no cells

1 Circular DNA 1 Circular DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA DNA or in nucleoid in nucleoid in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus RNA

yes, most of none or none none yes, of yes, of no murein pseudomurein cellulose chitin

unicellular unicellular unicellular multicellular multicellular uni & multi no cells

heterotrophic hetero, chemo heterotrophic heterotrophic autotrophic heterotrophic none chemotrophic

autotrophic

slide11

Review Chart of Cell Characteristics

Non-

living

Domain Eukarya

Domain Domain

Eubacteria Archaea Protista Animalia Plantae Fungi Viruses

Cell type

Chromo-somes

Cell wall?

Uni/multicellular

Energy source

Example organism

prokaryotic prokaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic no cells

1 Circular DNA 1 Circular DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA Linear DNA DNA or in nucleoid in nucleoid in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus in nucleus RNA

yes, most of none or none none yes, of yes, of no murein pseudomurein cellulose chitin

unicellular unicellular unicellular multicellular multicellular uni & multi no cells

hetero, chemo, hetero, chemo heterotrophic heterotrophic autotrophic heterotrophic none autotrophic autotrophic (autotrophic)

Staphylococcus Sulfolobus Entamoeba Canis Tsuga Saccharomyces HIV aureus histolytica domestica heterophylla cerevesiae

slide12

Taxonomy and Classification of Microbes (Especially Prokaryotes)

  • The Three Domains and What Distinguishes Them
  • Review of Characteristics of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Viruses
  • The Taxonomic Hierarchy and Species Definitions
  • Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Nine Medically Important Groups of Prokaryotes
  • Dichotomous Keys and Microbe Identification
slide14

Classification of a Particular Bacterium

Domain Eubacteria

Kingdom Prokaryotae (?)

Phylum Gram Positive

Class Scotobacteria

Order Spirochaetales

Family Spirochaetaceae

GenusTreponema

Speciespallidum

Scientific name: Treponema pallidum

orTreponemapallidum

No common name except “syphilis bacteria”

the species definition varies by microbial type
The “Species Definition” Varies By Microbial Type
  • A eukaryotic species is:
    • A group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves
  • A prokaryotic species is:
    • A population of cells with similar characteristics

 A clone is a population of cells derived from a single cell

      •  A strain is composed of cells of a species with minor identifiable differences
      •  A serovar is a strain identified by serological (antibody-identified) means
  • A viral species is:
    • A population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche
slide16

Taxonomy and Classification of Microbes (Especially Prokaryotes)

  • The Three Domains and What Distinguishes Them
  • Review of Characteristics of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Viruses
  • The Taxonomic Hierarchy and Species Definitions
  • Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Nine Medically Important Groups of Prokaryotes
  • Dichotomous Keys and Microbe Identification
characteristics used to classify prokaryotes
Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Morphology
  • Cell shape
  • Cell wall anatomy (staining characteristics)
characteristics used to classify prokaryotes1
Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Morphology
  • Cell shape
  • Cell wall anatomy (staining characteristics)
  • Physiology
  • Spore-forming ability
  • Motility (how many flagella and where attached)
  • Fruiting or budding ability
  • Ability to live with or without oxygen
characteristics used to classify prokaryotes2
Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Morphology
  • Cell shape
  • Cell wall anatomy (staining characteristics)
  • Physiology
  • Spore-forming ability
  • Motility (how many flagella and where attached)
  • Fruiting or budding ability
  • Ability to live with or without oxygen
  • Metabolic abilities
  • Use of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
characteristics used to classify prokaryotes3
Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Morphology
  • Cell shape
  • Cell wall anatomy (staining characteristics)
  • Physiology
  • Spore-forming ability
  • Motility (how many flagella and where attached, gliding)
  • Fruiting or budding ability
  • Ability to live with or without oxygen
  • Metabolic abilities
  • Use of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
  • Serology (recognition by blood antibodies)
  • Phage Typing (recognition by specific viruses)
  • DNA sequencing (similarities in gene sequences)
groups of prokaryotes

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Clostridium tetani

Groups of Prokaryotes

Escherichia coli

Haemophilus influenzae

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Mycobacterium teuberculosis

Corynebacterium diptheriae

Mitochondria in eukaryotes

    

Chloroplasts in eukaryotes

slide23

Taxonomy and Classification of Microbes (Especially Prokaryotes)

  • The Three Domains and What Distinguishes Them
  • Review of Characteristics of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Viruses
  • The Taxonomic Hierarchy and Species Definitions
  • Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Nine Medically Important Groups of Prokaryotes
  • Dichotomous Keys and Microbe Identification
spirochetes long helical bacteria which swim by spinning like corkscrews
SpirochetesLong, helical bacteria which swim by spinning like corkscrews

Leptospira interrogans

causes leptospirosis

Borrelia burgdorferi

causes Lyme disease

Treponema pallidum

causes syphilis

gram negative facultatively anaerobic rods
Gram negative, facultatively anaerobic rods

Salmonella (typhoid fever, food poisoning)

Shigella sonnei (shigellosis diarrhea)

Escherichia coli

(urinary tract infections)

Vibrio cholerae

(cholera diarrhea)

Haemophilus influenzae

(ear infections, meningitis)

Serratia marcescens

(urinary, resp tract infections)

gram negative aerobic rods and cocci
Gram negative aerobic rods and cocci

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

(burn, wound, & other infections)

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

(gonorrhea)

Bordatella pertussis

(pertussis/whooping cough)

rickettsias and chlamydias obligate intracellular parasites
Rickettsias and Chlamydiasobligate intracellular parasites

Rickettsia prowazekii

(typhus)

Chlamydia trachomatis

(urethritis - most common STD)

mycoplasmas
Mycoplasmas

No cell wall, intracellular parasite, small size,

unusual sterols in cell membrane

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

(“walking pneumonia”)

gram positive cocci
Gram positive cocci

Staphylococcus

aureus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus

pyogenes

endospore forming bacteria
Endospore forming bacteria

Clostridium

tetani

Bacillus

anthracis

Clostridium

botulinum

mycobacteria
Mycobacteria

Thick waxy lipids in cell wall (acid fast)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium leprae

groups of prokaryotes1
Groups of Prokaryotes

Staphylococcus aureus

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Clostridium tetani

Escherichia coli

Haemophilus influenzae

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Mycobacterium teuberculosis

Corynebacterium diptheriae

Mitochondria in eukaryotes

    

Chloroplasts in eukaryotes

slide34
Archaea (Archaebacteria)Many are morphologically part of the Gram-negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci group

Sulfulobus in

Yellowstone

hot springs

Halobacterium in

salt lake

slide35

Taxonomy and Classification of Microbes (Especially Prokaryotes)

  • The Three Domains and What Distinguishes Them
  • Review of Characteristics of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes, Viruses
  • The Taxonomic Hierarchy and Species Definitions
  • Characteristics Used to Classify Prokaryotes
  • Nine Medically Important Groups of Prokaryotes
  • Dichotomous Keys and Microbe Identification