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Classification of organisms. Whittaker’s 5 kingdoms. Prokaryotes | Unicellular. Monera. Monera Lactic Acid Bacteria . Magnification: x6666 @ 10 cm.

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monera lactic acid bacteria
MoneraLactic Acid Bacteria

Magnification: x6666 @ 10 cm.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), grown on purpose in cucumbers immersed in a salty brine digest the sugars in the cucumbers and metabolize them into lactic acid. Thus they remove a potential food source for harmful bacteria. At the same time, lactic acid produces an acidic medium which functions as a preservative and controls spoilage bacteria. The high salt concentration used is tolerated by the lactic acid bacteria but prevents spoilage bacteria from propagating. The cucumbers thus treated are called pickles or pickled cucumbers.

e.g. Lactobacillus - probiotic bacteria, which are useful for human and animal health

monera blue green algae
MoneraBlue-green Algae

Magnification: x250 @ 3.5 cm.

a.k.aNostoc or Cynanobacteria

The name "cyanobacteria" comes from the color of the bacteria (Greek: κυανός (kyanós) = blue).

The ability of cyanobacteria to perform oxygenic photosynthesis is thought to have converted the early reducing atmosphere into an oxidizing one, which dramatically changed the composition of life forms on Earth by stimulating biodiversity.

Cyanobacteria can be found in almost every conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to bare rock to soil.

Heterocyst-forming species are specialized for nitrogen fixation and are able to fix nitrogen gas into ammonia, nitrites or nitrates which can be absorbed by plants and converted to protein and nucleic acids

Magnification x1000 @ 10 cm.

protista protozoa paramecium
ProtistaProtozoa - Paramecium

Magnification unknown.

Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa. They are about 50 to 350 μm in length. Simple cilia cover the body, which allow the cell to move with a synchronous motion (like a caterpillar).

Paramecia are widespread in freshwater environments.

Paramecia feed on microorganisms like bacteria, algae, and yeasts.

protista protozoa amoeba
ProtistaProtozoa - Amoeba

Magnification x17000 @ 10 cm.

Amoeba are single-celled organisms (protozoa) that feed and move using irregular extensions of the cell cytoplasm known as pseudopods.

To move the amoeba extends a pseudopod in the direction it "wishes" to go, anchors it and pulls itself forward by contracting it's cell body.

Feeding occurs by phagocytosis. A pseudopodium flows out, engulfs a small organism such as an alga and is then reabsorbed into the cell body, where it is digested by enzymes within a digestive vacuole.

protista protozoa euglena
ProtistaProtozoa - Euglena

Magnification x2200 @ 10 cm.

This freshwater single-celled organism can either obtain energy from sunlight, via photosynthesis, or by absorbing chemicals from its surroundings.

It is also, like many protozoa, an active swimmer, moving rapidly by beating its long, whip-like flagellum.

protista green algae
ProtistaGreen Algae

Magnification x900 @ 10 cm.

Chlamydomonas are single-celled organisms are aquatic, living in freshwater habitats.

They use their two, tail- like flagella for swimming. These algae are also photosynthetic; they contain two types of the pigment chlorophyll, which they use to capture sunlight energy for the manufacture of sugars.

protista diatoms

Magnification x200 @ 10 cm.

Diatoms are single-celled photosynthetic algae, of which there are about 100,000 species, forming an important part of the plankton at the base of the marine and freshwater food chains.

They have mineralized cell walls that contain pure silica coated with a layer of organic material.

fungi mould penicillium
FungiMould - Penicillium

Magnification x375 @ 10 cm.

It produces penicillin, a molecule that is used as an antibiotic, which kills or stops the growth of certain kinds of bacteria inside the body.

Moulds grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.

Since fungi use decaying organic matter to grow fungi are also called as saphrophytes.

Mould bread

Penicillium is a common fungus to infect bread, producing mould of this colour.

fungi mould aspergillus
FungiMould - Aspergillus

Magnification x350 @ 10 cm.

Aspergillus produces toxins that lead to food contamination. This species may also cause aspergillosis, a hypersensitive lung reaction in asthmatics and those with lowered resistance, provoked by repeated inhalation of the spores.

Aspergillusgrows in household dust, soil, and decaying vegetable matter, including stale food.

Spores about to be released in the air.

Mould on nectarines

Color of mould depends on the nature of the substrate & on the species of fungus; green for Penicillium, blue, green or yellow for Aspergillus.

Network of vegetative filaments called hyphae.

fungi yeast

Magnification x3500 @ 10 cm.

Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic micro-organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species currently described estimated to be only 1% of all fungal species.

Yeast is commonly used in fermenting of alcoholic beverages and baking.

have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry.

fungi mushroom

A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. Like all fungi, mushrooms are not plants and do not undergo photosynthesis.

Many species of mushrooms seemingly appear overnight, growing or expanding rapidly. This phenomenon is the source of several common expressions in the English language including "to mushroom" or "mushrooming" (expanding rapidly in size or scope) and "to pop up like a mushroom" (to appear unexpectedly and quickly).

fungi lichen

Lichens are symbiotic organisms formed of a fungus and an alga that mutually benefit one another.

The alga is contained within the hyphae (filaments) of the fungus which protects it from harsh conditions, and in particular from desiccation. The alga supplies the fungus with nutrients that it makes by photosynthesis.


thallus = green shoot or twig

Spirogyra are filamentous green algae found in freshwater

Cladophora and Sea Lettuce (Ulvalactuca)

Three species of edible seaweedUlva, Palmaria and Laminaria(devil's apron)

Common stonewort (Chara vulgaris)

Predominantly aquatic plants | AutotrophicSimple thread like bodies with non-differentiated root, stem and leaves


bryon = moss in Latin

MossSmall plants that lack true roots, woody tissue and flowers.Grow in damp places.

Moss on walls





Bryophyta are amphibians of the plant kingdom

They lack vascular tissues | Have root like structures called rhizoids


pteri = fern in Greek


Lycopodiumground pine


Multicellular | Have vascular tissues

Reproduce asexually by spores and sexually by forming gametes


gymno = naked | sperm = seed





Perennial | Evergreen | Woody


angio = covered| sperm = seed

The flowering plants are the most diverse group of land plants.


Besides the animals

Body symmetry

Well after animals

coelom = cavity within the body

notochord = flexible, rod-shaped supporting structure


porifera = pore bearer in Latin



Non-motile, attached to a solid support

Have pores all over the body which helps in circulating water to bring food and oxygenVery minimal differentiation and division in to tissues

Ostia = Pores

Osculum = Large opening at free end

Spicules = Tiny spike like structure


koilos = full bellied

Jelly fish


Sea anemone


Stay in colonies

They have radial symmetry

Simple tissue organization

Body is made of two layers of cells – diploblastic


platy = flat in Greek



Tape worm

Liver flukes are parasitic flatworms that live in the bile duct of various mammals. They cause a disease known as fasciolosis and can cause great economic losses in the sheep and cattle industry.

Tapeworms have no specialized digestive system but feed on the half- digested food in the intestines by direct absorption through their entire skin surface. Tapeworms can cause diarrhoea, weight loss and abdominal discomfort.

Non-parasitic flat worm that lives in lakes, streams, ponds, and other freshwater bodies.

They have bilateral symmetry and flat body structure

They have three layers of cells – triploblastic

No true body cavity (coelom)


Ascaris (Roundworm)

Pinworm / Threadworm


The hookworm is a parasitic nematode that lives in the small intestine of its host, which may be a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human.

These parasites infect mammals, including humans, pigs, dogs and rats. Infection follows the consumption of raw or undercooked meat.

The pinworm also known as threadworm is a common human intestinal parasite, especially in children.

They have bilateral symmetry and round body structure

They have three layers of cells – triploblastic

They have a pseudocoelom

Generally parasitic disease causing worms


anellus = little ring in Latin


Neresis (Sandworm)


The earthworms diet mainly consists of organic substances in the soil, and its movement helps to break up the soil and improve its aeration.

Leech is a parasite has two suckers, one at each end of its body, that it uses to attach itself to the skin of its victim whilst it drinks their blood.

Sandworms are marine annelid worms that burrow in wet sand and mud using parapodia (un-joint limb-like outgrowths) and setae (bristles) for locomotion.

They have bilateral symmetry and segmented body structure

Reproduce sexually but sexes are not separate – hermaphrodite

They have three layers of cells – triploblastic

Have true coelom


árthron = joint and podós = foot

Probably the largest group of animals

They have bilateral symmetry and are triploblastic

Body is externally segmented and protected with chitinous exoskeleton

Sexes are separate

Coelom is filled with blood


molluscus = soft in Greek




They have bilateral symmetry and soft body that is generally covered with a shell

Open circulatory system and kidney like organs for excretion


skin like hedgehog in Greek


Sea cucumber

Sea urchin

They are free living marine animals

They have tough spiny exoskeleton made up of calcium carbonate

They show radial symmetry



Marine or burrowing animals with soft, unsegmented, triploblastic body

They posses notochord only in embryonic stage