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APHG Review: Highlights for the APHG Exam 2010-11 Copeland AP Human Geography. POPULATION & MIGRATION MOVEMENT AND DIFFUSION. POPULATION. 7.0 billion people Over 50% in urban areas. DENSITY. Density – number of people per square mile Agricultural - # of farmers per unit of arable land

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APHG Review: Highlights for the APHG Exam 2010-11 Copeland AP Human Geography


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    1. APHG Review: Highlights for the APHG Exam 2010-11Copeland AP Human Geography

    2. POPULATION & MIGRATIONMOVEMENT AND DIFFUSION

    3. POPULATION • 7.0 billion people • Over 50% in urban areas

    4. DENSITY • Density – number of people per square mile • Agricultural - # of farmers per unit of arable land • Physiological - # of people per unit of arable land

    5. DISTRIBUTION • The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface

    6. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION

    7. COMPOSITION • Pyramids – bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex • Ethnic patterns in US

    8. Population Pyramids Sudan, 2000 United States, 2000 Italy, 2000

    9. POPULATION & NATURAL HAZARDS • Technology and Innovation • Agricultural Revolution • Industrial Revolution • Medical Revolution • Black Plague • Irish Potato Famine • World Wars • AIDS

    10. Vocabulary • total fertility rate • infant mortality rate • life expectancy • Natural increase rate (BR-DR) • doubling time • dependency ratio • pyramids • carrying capacity

    11. OVERPOPULATION Excessive population of an area to the point of overcrowding, depletion of natural resources, or environmental deterioration

    12. Thomas Malthus • British economist in 1798 • Population limited by the means of food production • Population will increase with food production • Private checks – “moral restraint, celibacy, chastity • Destructive checks – war, poverty, pestilence, famine What is the “carrying capacity” related to today?

    13. DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION • Based on Western Europe’s experiences • Stage 3 - personal choices – most critical stage • Stage 4 – social customs - women

    14. POPULATION POLICIES • China’s One-Child Policy • India’s policy – democracy, education, family planning • United States – norms/mores(traditions) (1750, 1950); changing demographics

    15. MIGRATION • Long-term movement of a person from one political jurisdiction to another • Immigrate/Emigrate • Political • Economic • Environmental • Cultural

    16. MIGRATION • Push Factors • Pull Factors

    17. MIGRATION • Forced migration • Voluntary migration

    18. CULTURAL PATTERNS AND PROCESSES

    19. CULTURE – The way of life of a group of people CONCEPTS OF CULTURE Think: ABC’S of CULTURE!

    20. CONCEPTS OF CULTURE TRAIT – A single attribute of culture, such as wearing a turban in a Muslim society

    21. CONCEPTS OF CULTURE COMPLEX – Combination of traits; related set of traits, such as prevailing dress codes, cooking, eating utensils

    22. CONCEPTS OF CULTURE SYSTEM – Combined cultural complexes; Northern China eats wheat; Southern China eats rice; both speak a similar language; shared history, philosophy, cultural traditions & attitudes

    23. The imprint of cultures on the land creates distinct and characteristic examples CULTURALLANDSCAPE

    24. CULTURAL LANDSCAPES & IDENTITY 1. VALUES AND PREFERENCES – • language, religion, entertainment, government buildings • “atmosphere” – easy to perceive, difficult to define “Wall Street” “China Town” “Main Street” “Little Italy”

    25. CULTURAL LANDSCAPES & IDENTITY • 2. SYMBOLIC LANDSCAPES – • size of Hindu/Buddhist temples are smaller than Islamic mosque or Christian church • toponyms (New York, Washington, D.C., Palestine/Rome/Paris Texas)

    26. CULTURE HEARTH Point of origin and source of cultural growth and diffusion

    27. CULTURAL DIFFUSION From the hearths, cultural innovations and ideas spread to other areas

    28. CONCEPTS OF CULTURE PERCEPTION Varying ideas and attitudes about space, place, and territory

    29. CONCEPTS OF CULTURE Process in which ACCULTURATION a culture is substantially changed through interaction with another culture but it does not completely disappear

    30. CONCEPTS OF CULTURE REGIONS – areas in which there is a degree of homogeneity in the cultural characteristics; areas with similar landscapes 1 – the Americas 2 – Western Europe 3 – Eastern Europe 4 – Far East/Orient 5 – South Asia

    31. CONCEPTS OF CULTURE 6 – Southeast Asia 7 – Oceania 8 – Middle East/Arab World 9 – West Africa 10 – Sub-Saharan Africa

    32. LANGUAGES Family – shared but distant origins (Indo-European) Branch – collection of languages related through a common ancestor (Romance, Germanic) Group – collection of languages within a branch that share common origin and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary (West Germanic: English, German, Dutch Lingua Franca – common language understood by many people although they each speak another language Pidgin – language that has a small vocabulary and is combined and distorted from two or more languages

    33. LANGUAGES 2007 Statistics LANGUAGE FAMILYMAJOR LANGUAGE#/MILLIONS Indo-European Spanish 488 English468 Hindi 274 Portuguese 269 Bengali 259 Russian 220 Sino-TibetanMandarin Chinese 1322 Japanese-Korean Japanese 185 Korean 75 Afro-Asiatic Arabic 312

    34. RELIGION difficult to define, but contains some common characteristics: 1 – belief in a god or gods 3 – literature/book 2 – rituals 4 – ethics/rules monotheism – belief in one god polytheism – belief in more than one god animism – a soul or spirit is attributed to various phenomena universalizing – actively seeking converts - *CONFLICT* ethnic – closely identified with a specific cultural group

    35. RELIGION 2011 statistics RELIGIONTOTAL #% Christianity 2,262,112,000 33.32 Islam 1,426,592,000 21.01 Hinduism 900,362,000 13.26 Agnostics (No) 799,190,000 11.77 Buddhism 396,593,000 5.84 Atheism 157,529,000 2.32 Sikhism 23,400,000 .35 Judaism 13,580,000 0.23

    36. RELIGION Cultural Landscape • food eaten/meals • festivals/clothing • temples/mosques/churches • statues/figurines

    37. ETHNICITY Combination of a people’s culture (traditions, customs, language, & religion) and racial ancestry Ethnic cleansing is the slaughter or forced removal of one ethnic group from its home by another group Ethnic conflicts – Yugoslavia, Quebec, Holocaust(?)

    38. GENDER Roles performed culturally as designated by gender Women still perform the majority of the domestic work In the workplace, women do not get paid the same as men or have the same number of opportunities Urban landscapes – statues and monuments typically male (war heroes, etc.)

    39. POPULARCULTURE Massive, homogeneous, diffuse rapidly, technological FOLK CULTURE Traditional, small, individualistic, family, little if any technology

    40. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

    41. POLITICAL DEFINITIONS Territoriality • The attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area

    42. POLITICAL DEFINITIONS Sovereignty Principle that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states and be recognized by other states and codified by international law

    43. POLITICAL DEFINITIONS Unitary State • An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials

    44. POLITICAL DEFINITIONS Federal State • Allocation of strong power to units of local government within the country

    45. POLITICAL DEFINITIONS Democratization The transition to a more democratic political regime

    46. POLITICAL DEFINITIONS Nation • a group of people who possess common cultural traits • Kurdistan

    47. POLITICAL DEFINITIONS • State • a political entity that possesses sovereignty over an area delimited by internationally recognized boundaries • Mexico

    48. POLITICAL DEFINITIONS • Nation-state • a political unit that contains one principal national group that gives it its identity and defines its territory • Denmark

    49. RISE OF NATION-STATES • in response to the rise of nationalist political philosophies during the 18th century 2. humans want to be close to those of similar background 3. necessary and logical component of the transition from feudalism to capitalism 4. logical accompaniment of economic growth based on expanding technologies 5. arose from the collapse of local communities and the need for effective communication within a large unit