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Scoping and Launching the Project. Dr. Vijay Kanabar , PMP Boston University. Project Methodology. Stages:. Plan. Define. Execute. Close Out & Celebrate. Continuous Assessment (Risk mgmt, plan control, change mgmt). Outputs:. Stakeholder Analysis Project Proposal Project Charter

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scoping and launching the project

Scoping and Launching the Project

Dr. Vijay Kanabar, PMP

Boston University

project methodology
Project Methodology

Stages:

Plan

Define

Execute

Close Out & Celebrate

Continuous Assessment

(Risk mgmt, plan control, change mgmt)

Outputs:

  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Project Proposal
  • Project Charter
  • Statement of Work (SOW)
  • Communication Plan
  • Responsibility Matrix
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Critical Path
  • Scheduling
  • Risk Assessment
  • Resource Plan
  • High Performing Team
  • Scope Control
  • Stakeholder Management
    • Final deliverables

Project Plan

communications management

Communications Management

Including Resource Planning

communication management
Communication Management
  • Communications management is about keeping everyone aware about what is going on with the project.

“Up to 90% of a project manager's time is spent in communications management.”

- PMI

communication requirements
Communication Requirements
  • Responsibility – who ‘owns’ what
  • Coordination – keeping it going together
  • Status – progress, issues, resolutions
  • Authorization – decisions made
tools
Tools
  • Status report
    • Dashboard?
  • Open task report
    • Past due
  • Short-view task list
    • Forecast of what comes next
  • Issues log
    • What is happening, who can fix it
  • Change control process
    • Automated/manual
    • Levels of approval
    • Implications for other tasks & deliverables
types of reports
Types Of Reports

Different types of reports are sent to Different types of audience.

Report type Audience

Executive status report Senior Management

Status report Project sponsor

Project report Project team

Task report Team members

pmi processes for communications
PMI Processes for Communications

Plan Communications

Distribute Information

Manage Stakeholders Expectations

Report Performance

Planning

Executing

Monitor & Control

Ref: PMBOK 4th Edition.

project manager role in communication
Project Manager Role in Communication
  • Project managers must keep the following informed:
    • Project owners
    • Team members
    • Management
    • Subcontractors and
    • Stakeholders.
  • Anyone else?
communication activities
Communication Activities

Communication Activities involve

Developing a communication management plan

Managing stakeholders

Distributing project information in a timely manner

Motivating teams

Resolving conflicts.

communications model
Communications Model

Messages are encoded and decoded using a device or technology before they travel over the medium. 

the communication process
The Communication Process

Receiver

provides verbal

and nonverbal

responses to

sender

Sender has

idea

Sender

encodes idea

into a

message

Message

travels over

one or more

channels

Receiver

perceives and

decodes

message

Sender’s response

to feedback may

trigger additional

feedback to

receiver

the communication process message
The Communication ProcessMessage
  • The message refers to the verbal (spoken and written) symbols and nonverbal cues representing the information that the sender wants to convey.
    • Nonverbal Messages
    • Verbal Messages
    • Written Messages
filters1
Filters

There are filters on both sides of the sender and receiver that hinder communication.

a.Language: technical material, lack of clear communication channels, physical separation, personality conflicts, culture, semantics, and message content (could be intertwined with hidden agendas).

b.Environmental background: psychological and sociological parameters, dysfunctional emotional behaviors. Different educational backgrounds.

filters contd
Filters (contd.)

c.Authority/Reputation

d.Pre-determined mind-set:Havinga self-fulfilling philosophy or unfounded assumptions.

e.Historical consideration: The way a task was always done.

barriers
Barriers

Communication barriers including mumbling, long distance, static or noise and negative attitudes or power play.

Examples are listed below :

  • Noise
  • Pre-occupation
  • Power game
  • Withholding information
  • Management by Memo
  • Hostility
  • Filters
t oo many communication channels
Too Many Communication Channels

Lines of communication = N (N-1)/2

  • Communication can become a very complex activity in large project settings.
  • Formula that will calculate the lines of communication or the communication channels based on the number of people involved in a project
communication management plan
Communication Management Plan

The Communication Management Plan is the primary output of the communications planning process.

Communication Management Plan is created by the project manager and becomes part of the project plan.

The purpose is to inform all stakeholders how and in what form communications will be handled on the project.

responsibility assignment matrix
Responsibility Assignment Matrix
  • A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a matrix that maps the work of the project as described in the WBS to the people responsible for performing the work as described in the organization breakdown structure (OBS).
  • For smaller projects assign individual people to WBS activities.
  • For very large projects, it is more effective to assign the work to organizational units or teams.

WBS Activities

OBS

Units

R = Responsible organizational unit

P = Performing organizational unit

responsibility matrix for decision making

GR 1

GR 2

GR 3

GR 4

GR 5

GR 6

GR 7

Business Case

Opportunity

Capture Strategy

Proposal

Program Design

Proposal

Proposal Quality

Identification

Go / No

-

Go

Feasibility

Responsiveness

(Submission)

& Compliance

X

X

CEO

(if signature

required)

CFO

X

X

X

COO

X

X

(Ops/

Logistics)

VP Human

X

X

Resources

VP CCE

X

X

(if CCE project)

VP Strategy

X

VP Programs

X

X

X

VP Region

X

X

X

X

Director

G&C

X

X

Country

R

ep /

X

X

X

CoP

Director NBD

X

X

X

X

X

X

Responsibility Matrix - For Decision Making
resource planning
Resource Planning

Determining what resources (people, equipment, materials) are needed in what quantities to perform project activities.

PMBOK Glossary

resource requirements
Resource Requirements

Inputs

Tools and Techniques

  • Work Breakdown Structure
  • Historical information
  • Scope statement
  • Resource pool description
  • Organizational policies
  • Activity duration estimates
  • Expert judgment
  • Alternatives identification
  • Project management software

Outputs

  • Resource requirements
responsibility matrices
Responsibility Matrices
  • Also called a linear responsibility chart.
  • Summarizes the tasks to be accomplished and who is responsible for what on the project.
    • Lists project activities and participants.
    • Clarifies critical interfaces between units and individuals that need coordination.
    • Provide an means for all participants to view their responsibilities and agree on their assignments.
    • Clarifies the extent or type of authority that can be exercised by each participant.
raci matrix is widely used
RACI Matrix is widely used

People who do the work

Makes sure work is done

Provide work input

Progress Report provided

Or could be Assist, Coordinate, Sign-off, Review etc.

project methodology1
Project Methodology

Stages:

Plan

Define

Execute

Close Out & Celebrate

Continuous Assessment

(Risk mgmt, plan control, change mgmt)

Outputs:

  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Project Proposal
  • Project Charter
  • Statement of Work (SOW)
  • Communication Plan
  • Responsibility Matrix
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Critical Path
  • Scheduling
  • Risk Assessment
  • Resource Plan
  • High Performing Team
  • Scope Control
  • Stakeholder Management
    • Final deliverables
ibasis project initiative discussion communications plans
iBasis Project/Initiative Discussion Communications Plans
  • Form into groups based on group lists
  • Combine break & work session = 30 Minutes
  • Continue to discuss project/initiative that was assigned to your group
  • Brainstorm and document:
    • Identify the key components of a project communications plan for your projects.
    • Vijay – Identify key frameworks that you want them to use here
  • Action: Be prepared to present your communications plan xxx framework/template to the larger group
    • Pick a spokesperson to represent you
risk management

Risk Management

Dr. Vijay Kanabar, PMP

Boston University

risk management planning
Risk Management Planning

Risk Management Planning is a process that describes your strategy to manage the entire risk management activities for a project.

why risk management
Why Risk Management?

Project managers and project teams are always more optimistic than they should be.

Risk management balances out undue optimism by introducing a process that constantly asks “what if?”

philosophy prevention is better than the cure
Philosophy: Prevention is Better than the Cure!
  • As in medical practice risk prevention is more cost-effective (and potentially life saving) than risk detection.
  • Project risks must be tackled actively and prevented.
  • A good project manager must know how to recognize such risks, evaluate their impact and take steps to counter them.
process
Process
  • Identify all risks.
  • Quantify them in terms

of their probability and impact.

    • high, medium, low, no impact.
  • Respond
    • prevent
    • mitigate
    • Transfer
    • Absorb
let us make this complicated there are threats opportunities
Let us Make this ComplicatedThere are Threats & Opportunities

So far we have defined risk as a threat—event that may cause suffering, harm or loss, but risks are also associated with opportunity—event that may cause us to gain or profit.

a complete example
A complete example
  • Risk Identification: Turnover
      • Based on past history turnover is estimated to be at 0.60.
      • This is going to increase project duration and project cost. Customer is going to be unhappy.
  • Risk Quantification:
      • High Probability, High Consequence.
  • Risk Response:
      • Meet with current staff & determine reasons.
      • Define a back-up staff member for every key technologist.
      • Define higher documentation standards.
      • Disperse project information widely.
what are sources of risks in your organization
What are sources of risks in your organization?

See Sample List

to consider !

Scope creep

Resources

Low quality

Excessive schedule pressure

Cost overruns

Inadequate configuration control

Inadequate cost estimating

Excessive paperwork

Error prone software /modules

Canceled projects

Excessive time to market

Friction between contractor, client,....

identifying risks two different approaches
Identifying Risks:Two Different Approaches

Generic Approach

  • Operational risk.
  • Strategic risk.
  • Technical risk
  • Project Environment.
  • External risk.
  • Product risk.

Top Down

Focus on overall development process.

Project Based Approach

  • See next slide.

Bottom-Up

Focus on individual process or WBS tasks.

risk identification
Risk Identification

During this process youexamine a project to identify areas of potential risk. Risk Identification is a planning process that defines the risks that might affect the project and documents their characteristics.

slide44

Use this to Quantify Qualitatively

RISK SEVERITY CONTOURS

100%

(Unacceptable)

High Risk

Medium Risk

Low Risk

Probability

(Acceptable)

0%

100%

Units of relative loss

example 1

Use this to Quantify Quantitatively

Example 1

Potential Impact to Project is $450,000

  • Should we request a contingency budget of $450,000?
  • Management might give less as the probability of both risks happening is less than fifty percent.
example 2
Example 2

Potential Impact to Project $350,000

example 3
Example 3

There is a Project from which we stand to Profit $100,000 if we pursue it aggressively—by developing it very quickly—results in higher market share. However, the probability for success is estimated to be only 20% as all the bells and whistles will not be available in the product.

However, if we pursue it more conservatively we will make $20,000, as the competition might have captured a significant portion of the market. But the probabilities for project/product success are 80%--as the developers will have incorporated some additional features.

example contd
Example (contd)
  • Question: Which option should we use?
  • Use:
    • Business Profit * Probability
example contd1
Example (contd)

Answer:

  • Aggressive: $100,000 * 0.20 = $20,000
  • Conservative: $20,000 * 0.80 = $16,000
  • EMV = +$ 4000 for aggressive choice should be the preferred choice.
  • Note: You would want a lower number if the risk was negative.
what it looks like
What it looks like

Commute: 30 mins to 90 minutes

Could be cost or could be schedule risk that is evaluated

Monte-Carlo Simulation Sample Diagram using Excel from http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/docs/monte-carlo-simulation.pdf .

risk response planning
Risk Response Planning
  •  Risk response planning:
    • Developing procedures and techniques to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to the project’s objective;
    • The risk register is updated.
  • This process is followed by Monitor and Control.
assessing and planning for risk
Assessing and Planning for Risk

H

ELIMINATE

REDUCE

Probability

ACCEPT

L

L

H

Impact

response planning
Response Planning

Negative Risks

Prevent the risk

Transfer the risk

Mitigate the risk

Share the risk.

Leave it aside and Monitor (accept the risk)

response planning1
Response Planning

Positive Risks

Exploit and Maximize!

techniques with examples
Techniques with Examples
  • 1. Avoidance:
    • Prevention: Change the scope of the project.
  • 2. Transference:
    • Move it outside: Purchase Insurance.
  • 3. Mitigation:
    • Containment: Send the resource for training.
  • 4. Acceptance:
    • Leave it aside: Gets absorbed in a contingency budget.
slide56

Risk Management:

Prevention Template

How might I

prevent it

from going wrong?

How can I mitigate it?

What can go

wrong with

my project?

Where is the

greatest

impact of the risk?

slide57

RiskManagement:

ContingencyTemplate

What will I do when the risk materializes?

How and when will I

know that it went

wrong?

What can go

wrong with

my project?

risk monitoring and control
Risk Monitoring and Control
  • Risks need to be monitored and controlled. At weekly meetings use the following strategy.

 1. High Risk: Change--reduce probability & impact of risk. Your strategy could also include prevention by changing the project scope.

2. Medium Risk: Contain and mitigate them--ensure that risks do not escalate by monitoring them closely.

3. Low Risk: Monitor risk level--do nothing--track them at weekly meetings to see if the status has changed from Low to High.

assessing and planning for risk2
Assessing and Planning for Risk

Source: VA National Center for Patient Safety; http://www.patientsafety.gov/SafetyTopics/HFMEA/FMEA2.pdf

assessing and planning for risk3
Assessing and Planning for Risk

Source: VA National Center for Patient Safety; http://www.patientsafety.gov/SafetyTopics/HFMEA/FMEA2.pdf

bottom up risk management
Bottom up Risk Management

Based on your WBS.

I find it easy to insert a new column and flag risks. See figure in next slide.

Flag tasks that go outside your control as risks so that you can monitor them

conclusion
Conclusion

Risk Management is an art and a science.

Project managers can have a successful project if the know both.

Communications is a key skill within Risk Management.

The project manager should be a good “risk elevator” and “risk communicator”.

If a project manager fails to communicate risks to senior management or to sponsors and stakeholders he/she has failed as a project manager.

project methodology2
Project Methodology

Stages:

Plan

Define

Execute

Close Out & Celebrate

Continuous Assessment

(Risk mgmt, plan control, change mgmt)

Outputs:

  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Project Proposal
  • Project Charter
  • Statement of Work (SOW)
  • Communication Plan
  • Responsibility Matrix
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Critical Path
  • Scheduling
  • Risk Assessment
  • Resource Plan
  • High Performing Team
  • Scope Control
  • Stakeholder Management
    • Final deliverables
references
References

Kanabar & Warburton: Project Management, Kaplan Publishing, 2008

Warburton & Kanabar: Art & Science of Project Management, RWPress, 2012

PMBOK Guide 4th Edition, PMI.

workshop
Workshop

Using the templates introduced in this seminar create a risk management register.

At least three risks should be identified.

For any one risk identify a contingency plan.

engaging with the environment
Engaging with the Environment
  • Project life cycle
    • Define
    • Plan
    • Execute
    • Shut down

Define

Plan

Execute

  • Project Proposal
  • Stakeholder analysis
  • Project Charter
  • SOW
  • Communication plan
  • Team formation
  • Resp. matrix
  • WBS
  • Budget / Estimation
  • Network diagram
  • Gantt Chart
  • Slack / Critical Path
  • Risk assessment
  • FMEA
  • Scheduling / Balancing
  • Scope management
  • Measure / control
  • Phase gates

Project Plan

Close Out & Celebrate

Continuous Assessment

(Risk mgmt, plan control, change mgmt)

key concepts

Schedule

Cost

Deliverables

Key Concepts
  • Stakeholders & Risk
  • Triple Constraints
  • Create the Deliverables
  • Leading the Team

Risk

time

ibasis project initiative discussion risk management
iBasis Project/Initiative Discussion Risk Management
  • Form into groups based on group lists
  • Combine break & work session = 30 Minutes
  • Continue to discuss project/initiative that was assigned to your group
  • Brainstorm and document:
    • Discuss how risk management techniques could be applied to their projects.
    • Vijay – Identify key frameworks that you want them to use here
  • Action: Be prepared to present your Risk Management xxx framework/template to the larger group
    • Pick a spokesperson to represent you