Between the Wars in Images 1918-1939
In the 1920’s America Swings!
Glamour The Charleston
But Europe Struggles • death • destruction • disease • unemployment • famine • political unrest
1929 AMERICAN stock market crash leads to world-wide economic depression 1930 1928 1919
World War II The Beginning • After the treaty of Versailles the German’s felt deep resentment at their losses from WW I. • The harsh provisions of the treaty left Germany weakened and humiliated and deprived of the great-power status. • Treaty of Versailles provisions: • Reduced size of Germany, had to give back Alsace-Lorraine, France controlled coal rich Saar Basin and Allied forces occupied the Rhineland region. • Poland was re-established out of parts of Germany A-H and Prussia. • Banned conscription and manufacturing of major war weapons. • Stripped Germany of overseas colonies. • France and Britain were not satisfied and demanded Germany take blame for causing the war and pay preparations for allied cost and damages.
Germany Fascism and Totalitarianism • German resentment from the end of WW I and Versailles would be a spring board for Hitler and his Nazi regime. Rise of Fascism • The U.S. and Britain had strong democracies but a new form of dictatorship know as totalitarianism emerged in Germany, Italy and Russia. • Under totalitarian governments the government controlled all aspects of life and people were seen as servants of the state, with few personal freedoms, the radio, press and arts were used to promote the government’s political philosophy. • These governments assumed sweeping powers and remodeled entire societies and conquered lands. • Totalitarian governments came into conflict with each other as well as with democratic governments. • Setting the stage for another conflict.
Middle class fear of communism Lenin • Russia leads the international organization of communist parties • Fear of Communism spreads through Europe. Is this fear still around today? • Stalin takes power in 1927
Dictators between the Wars Stalin Hitler Mussolini
Italy After WW I Italy was dissatisfied since it received huge portions of territory from the Central Powers. The economy was on a downturn and there was mounting discontent.
Benito Mussoliniand Fascism • Working class family, journalist, active socialist but became an ardent nationalist during the war. • In 1919 he formed a new political party Fasci di Combattimento or Fascist party. • Fascism is a political philosophy that advocates: • Glorification of the state and • Single party system with a strong ruler • Aggressive nationalism.
Italy and Mussolini Cont. • Fascism gave the state, like in communism, absolute political authority but defended private property with some gov’t regulations • The nation’s causes were to be advanced at all costs; even war. • As conditions in Italy got worse, striking workers, rising prices on bread and shortages of coal hampered industrial production. • Mussolini promised something for everyone, protect private property, create jobs and give workers benefits and said would restore Italy to its former greatness.
Mussolini Comes to Power • Blackshirts were Mussolini’s followers, used attacks and violence to put down political opponents. The democratic government saw fascists as a way to counter communists so they did nothing to stop the Blackshirts. • 1922 Mussolini marched on Rome to see what the reaction would be, the cabinet asked king Victor Emmanuel to impose martial law, he refused, they resigned and VE named Mussolini Prime minister. • 1924 elections the Blackshirts made sure Italians voted for Fascist Candidates and Fascists controlled parliament and gave sweeping powers to Mussolini. Mussolini took to calling himself Il Duce or “the Leader.
Mussolini and Syndicates • Mussolini re-ordered government est. a corporate state, bringing workers and employers together to end problems. • Also banned non-fascist parties and ordered syndicates; corporations between workers and employers, to be formed in each industry. These syndicates sent delegates to parliament to set policy on wages and production.
Loss of Freedom but what do you gain? • Many Italians opposed fascism and the loss of personal freedoms, they feared the Blackshirts etc. • The majority of Italians supported Mussolini; preventing a communist revolution and brought order to the nation. • Building up the military solved the unemployment problem but also rekindled patriotism and nationalism and made it Italy’s destiny to recapture former greatness.
The Weimar Republic (Germany) MAP • The allies tried to ensure Germany would never again threaten the peace. The Treaty of Versailles limited the size of Germany and required Germany to form a democratic gov’t. • 1919 meeting in Weimar, a national assembly drafted a constitution for Germany. • 1920 nationalist army officers tried a coup d’etat, which was put down but the new gov’t could not overcome widespread opposition. People felt that they had succumbed to Versailles.
Repatriationsand Inflation in Germany • Allies wanted full repayment for the war a cost of 35 billion, in 1922 the German Government stated they could not pay this. • France insisted and marched troops in to the Ruhr Valley and took over coal mines and steel mills. Lost important financial asset. • Inflation To meet expenses the German gov’t printed more and more money, this caused inflation, before the war 4 marks = $1 US by 1923 4 Trillion marks = $1 US. • In the mid 20’s German got some relief, France compromised on reparations and left the Ruhr. Free from debt and with U.S. loans Germany entered 5 years of relative prosperity.
German political cartoon: Condemned to death by the peace settlement
Hitler and the Nazis • National Socialist Workers’ Party or Nazi party challenged the Weimar Rep. • One of the first recruits was Adolf Hitler, born in Austria in 1889, served in WW I, failed in his efforts to become an artist. • Hitler formed the Brownshirts, a private army of street thugs and young veterans. • Crisis of 1923, Hitler tried to seize power, was arrested and jailed, the revolt failed.
Hitler in Prison and After • In prison Hitler wrote his autobiography Mein Kampf My Struggle. • said Germans was not responsible for loosing the war but put the blame on Communists and Jews. • Stated that Germans were a “master race” whose destiny was to rule the world and saw himself as the leader who would unite all German speaking peoples into an empire that would dominate the world. • After his release from prison he resumed his activities. With the depression of 1929 Hitler appealed to workers and industrialists alike and promised jobs and a restoration of Germany’s military might.
Nazi’s Take Over Germany • In the early 1930’s the Nazi’s won a large number of seats in the Reichstag or legislative lower house. And got the backing of conservatives that thought they could use him to their own ends. • In 1933 Hitler became Chancellor through entirely legal means. Hitler’s goal was to create a totalitarian state. Because the Nazis were a minority in the Reichstag Hitler called for new elections. A week before the election the Reichstag was burned. Hitler blamed the communists. The brownshirts in the election forced voters to back the Nazis. After the election the Nazi run Reichstag voted Hitler emergency powers to deal with the “Communist threat” • Hitler used his new powers to crush political opponents, banned all parties but Nazi party, ended freedom of speech, press and assembly, took over labor unions, set wages and production rates.
Attacks on Jews • Hitler directed his most bitter attacks on Jews. 1935 Jews lost citizenship and right to hold public office, laws barred Jews from schools and destroyed Jewish businesses. • Kristallnacht November 9-10 of 1938; Nazi party members attacked Jews on the street vandalized Jewish businesses, homes and synagogues. The Gestapo or Nazi secret police were the driving force in the Kristallnacht.
Sudetenland falls to Hitler- -then the rest of Czechoslovakia
Propaganda • Most propaganda in Germany was produced by the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. Joseph Goebbels was placed in charge of this ministry shortly after Hitler took power in 1933. All journalists, writers, and artists were required to register with one of the Ministry's subordinate chambers for the press, fine arts, music, theater, film, literature, or radio. • The Nazis believed in propaganda as a vital tool in achieving their goals. Adolf Hitler, Germany's Fuehrer, was impressed by the power of Allied propaganda during World War I and believed that it had been a primary cause of the collapse of morale and revolts in the German home front and Navy in 1918.
31.1: The Path to War • Japan’s Expansion into Asia • Japan needed to acquire territory for natural resources and export markets. • Invaded Manchuria in 1931 and renamed it Manchukuo. • China protested in League of Nations, which condemned Japan. Japan subsequently withdrew from the League. • In 1937 Japan invaded China as a stepping stone to controlling the oil of the East Indies. • Italy’s Conquest of Ethiopia • The dictator of Italy was Benito Mussolini. • Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935. • The League of Nations condemned Italy and imposed sanctions, but they were toothless since they did not block the sale of oil, coal or iron. • Spanish Civil War • The King abdicated and Spain became a republic. • Precipitated a civil war, with the rightist forces being led by General Francisco Franco. • Franco won in 1938 and Spain became a fascist country.
Seizing Austria • Hitler wanted to join Austria to Germany; this was called Anschluss. • Hitler sent troops into Austria in 1938 in a move to take it over; Western powers refused to intervene. • Hitler later demanded that Czechoslovakia turn over the Sudetenland to him. • The British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain agreed. He though a policy of appeasement (granting concessions to maintain peace) would pacify Hitler. Instead, it just emboldened him. • After a meeting in Munich, Hitler broke his promise to cease his territorial grabs and invaded Czechoslovakia. • Hitler’s subsequent attentions on Poland caused Britain and France to try and align with the Soviet Union. • Stalin did not trust the West, and he subsequently negotiated a Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. • This made Hitler more confident; he then invaded Poland. • This caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany, thus beginning WWII.
1) Invasion of Poland • German invasion of the Polish corridor finally led to a declaration of war by Britain & France • 2) “phony War” - • France & Britain stand by defensively while Germany conquers Poland, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands & Belgium……..