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Between The Wars. Ch 28 – Russian Revolution Ch 29 - Nationalism and Revolution Ch 30 – Crisis of Democracies. Russian Revolution. March Revolution Czars made reforms Duma created but no power Nicholas II blocked anything to take his power Marxists tried to ignite the proletariat

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between the wars

Between The Wars

Ch 28 – Russian Revolution

Ch 29 - Nationalism and Revolution

Ch 30 – Crisis of Democracies

russian revolution
Russian Revolution
  • March Revolution
    • Czars made reforms
    • Duma created but no power
    • Nicholas II blocked anything to take his power
    • Marxists tried to ignite the proletariat
    • WWI strained Russia
    • Nicholas went to front to lead, knew nothing
    • Left domestic affairs to czarina, Alexandra (German)

Alexandra relied on Gregory Rasputin for advice

Illiterate peasant, self-proclaimed holy man

Personality made him popular healer

Helped son with hemophilia

Rasputin became powerful gov. advisor to Alexandra

Nobles disliked him, killed him

Poisoned, shot, ran, shot, clubbed, thrown in river

Cause of death: drowned

collapse of the monarchy
Collapse of the Monarchy

March 1917 – everything was bad

Food, fuel shortages

Czar abdicated

New government set up, continued war

Troops began to desert

Cities set up soviets: councils of workers & soldiers

Bolsheviks: radical socialist group

V.I. Lenin becomes leader

the november revolution
The November Revolution

Lenin and Leon Trotsky: Peace, Land, and Bread

November 1917 – Red Guards attacked government

Fell without a struggle

Bolsheviks made Moscow the capital

Ended private ownership of land, gave to poor

Workers got control of factories

New flag

Bolsheviks became Communists

russian civil war
Russian Civil War

Signed treaty with Germany, out of WWI

3 years: Reds (communists) vs. Whites (czarists)

Allies of WWI sent troops to Whites

Brutality and reign of terror


Czar, Czarina, 5 kids killed

War Communism: gov. takes everything

Trotsky made Red Army strong

Poor unit: every 1oth man shot

1921: Over, millions dead, chaos among people

building communist soviet union
Building Communist Soviet Union

1922 – wrote constitution

Political power, resources and production belonged to the workers

Became Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

Communists reigned supreme

Army and secret police used for any bidding

Set up NEP – capitalist ideas

Small businesses, private profit

By 1928, back to normal

stalin s five year plans
Stalin’s Five Year Plans

Wanted Modern industrial power

Several “Five Year Plans”

All economic activity under gov. control

Set high production goals: rewards and punishments

Standard of living was low

Took animals, tools, land = Set up farm collectives

Peasants killed animals, ruined land & tools

Famine and death followed

the great purge
The Great Purge

Stalin feared being overthrown

1934 – started Great Purge

Crimes: counterrevolutionary to failing to meet quota

Public “Show Trials” – confessions of former officials

Killed or sent to Siberia

Showed consequences of disloyalty

Mistake: Killing military officials

soviet foreign policy
Soviet Foreign Policy

Wanted to start worldwide revolution

Started “Red Scare” in US

Tried to join League of Nations

West was skeptical of USSR

Didn’t like threat of revolution

life in a totalitarian state
Life in a Totalitarian State


Complained = labor camp

Propaganda to create extreme nationalism

Only allowed atheism – all religions banned

Built schools to create workers

Censorship of news, books, movies, paintings

mexican revolution
Mexican Revolution

1910 – Porfirio Diaz was dictator for 35 years

Prosperity only for wealthy, poor suffered

Reformer, Francisco Madero demanded elections

Revolution began

Groups of rebels grew and waged war on Diaz

1917 – Venustiano Carranza voted in

Wrote a constitution

mexican reforms
Mexican Reforms
  • Nationalization – government takeover
  • Took land, divided up large estates and church land
  • Set minimum wage
  • Gave women rights
  • 1929 – PRI or Institutional Revolutionary Party
  • Economic Nationalism – emphasis on domestic goods
  • Cultural nationalism – pride in ones culture
  • Good Neighbor Policy
    • Pres. Roosevelt vowed to work with LA, not against it
africa and colonialism
Africa and Colonialism

Africans resented colonization

Protested over loss of land, taxes, ID cards

South Africa imposed apartheid

Legal separation of blacks and whites

Pan-Africanism created united front to Europeans

Created set of rights for Africans

Ignored by Western powers

turkey and iran
Turkey and Iran
  • Ottoman Empire collapsed after WWI
  • Turks overthrew sultan, set up nation
  • Reforms
    • Western calendar, western clothes, no veils, polygamy banned
  • Iran
    • Resented Russia and British rulers
    • Overthrew the shah
    • Similar reforms to Turkey
european mandates
European Mandates

Arab nations helped in war, promised independence

Instead were carved up to European nations

Zionists wanted Jewish homeland

British promised Palestine to Jews

Arabs wanted to keep Palestine

Anti-Semitism erupts in Europe


India owned by British since 1885

Wanted independence

Mohandas Gandhi lead revolts in South Africa

Used non-violent protests and civil disobedience

salt march
Salt March

British banned Indians from using salt from sea, only buy it

Gandhi & 78 followers marched 240 miles to sea

People joined, 1000s reached sea

Jailed for picking up salt

World saw Brits use force on peaceful people

Became independent in 1947

  • 1900s – China in chaos
  • Japan wanted to annex China
  • May 4th Movement
    • Students in Beijing began boycott of Japan
    • Marches and protests
    • Like the idea of communism
jiang and mao zedong
Jiang and Mao Zedong

Jiang took over Guomindang (Nationalist) Party

Mao - communist leader

Fought constantly

Jiang gathered Mao and 100,000 on Long March

6000 miles in 1 year

Mao forced discipline that gained them followers

20,000 survived

Set up new base

japanese invasion
Japanese Invasion

1931 – Japan invades Manchuria

Jiang had to join with communists to fight back

December 13, 1937 Japan enters Nanjing

City surrendered

Competition between 2 Japanese generals to kill

Troops killed hundreds of thousands

“Rape of Nanjing”

empire of the rising sun
Empire of the Rising Sun

Japan grew powerful in 1920s

Seemed peaceful and good economy

Problems with peasants, low wages

Youth revolted against old ways

Great Depression caused high unemployment

nationalism in japan
Nationalism in Japan

Ultranationalists rioted

US shut out Japanese immigrants

Attacked Manchuria without orders

League of Nations angered, Japan left

Government pushed tradition in schools

Students taught “absolute obedience to empire”

post war issues
Post War Issues

Problems in Big Three countries

No jobs for vets, debt, lack of leaders

1920s – Europe signed “Ban War Forever” Treaty

Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 = Outlawed War

All nations promised to disarm


Dark green - original signatories

Light green- later adherents

Light Blue - territories of parties Dark blue - League of Nations mandates of parties

the great depression
The Great Depression

Overproduction of goods

People had too much debt

November 29, 1929 – US Stock Market Crashed

Effected every nation in the world

Communists gloated about capitalism’s collapse

Rebounded in 1932 with Pres. Roosevelt’s New Deal

All countries began to come back

fascism in italy
Fascism in Italy

1919 Benito Mussolini took power

Black Shirts – private, socialist police

10,000 Fascists marched on Rome to take power

Became Il Duce = the leader

Used terror to rule, censor

Strong, stable government but little personal freedom

the weimar republic
The Weimar Republic
    • 1919 German Constitution set up Chancellor
  • Government wasn’t very strong
  • Inflation hurt everyone
  • July 1922 – 100 marks, August 1923 – 944,000 marks
  • By 1924, West helped slow inflation
  • Stabilized but then Great Depression hit
adolf hitler
Adolf Hitler

Born in Austria

Rejected from Art School

Fought in WWI

Joined National Socialist German Workers (Nazis)

Became leader

1923 – Wrote Mein Kampf = goals and ideas

Extreme nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism

Urged Germans to unite

Gain Lebensraum, living space

road to power
Road to Power

Jailed for attempting to over throw Chancellor

Used Depression to give speeches

Gained followers easily

Promised jobs and defy Versailles Treaty

Nazis won seats in government

Elected Chancellor in 1933 legally

the third reich
The Third Reich

Totalitarian state

Efficient but brutal, terror, repression

Gestapo = secret police

Launched public works to combat depression

Began to rearm the country

Believed “Extremes must be fought by extremes”

Created “Hitler Youth” to recruit children

Wanted “Pure-blooded Aryan” people

campaign against the jews
Campaign against the Jews
  • Wanted to drive the Jews from Germany
  • Nuremberg Laws – restricted Jews
    • No school or teaching
    • No marrying Germans
    • No government jobs
    • Couldn’t be doctor or lawyer
    • No publishing books
    • Jews fled, like Einstein

November 7, 1938

Night of Broken Glass

Gestapo destroyed all Jewish businesses and synagogues

Began to look for “Final Solution” for Jews

1000s of Jews sent to concentration camps