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CHAPTER 2 The American Colonies Emerge. Plymouth Rock. Section 2. An English Settlement at Jamestown. The first permanent English settlement in North America is founded at Jamestown , Virginia, in 1607. NEXT. The European Colonies.
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CHAPTER 2 The American Colonies Emerge Plymouth Rock
Section 2 An English Settlement at Jamestown The first permanent English settlement in North America is founded at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. NEXT
1st permanent English settlement in North America was Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 Joint Stock companies – investors joined together to raise funds to establish colonies Virginia Company granted charter by King James I of England to start colony John Smith becomes leader of colony An English Settlement at Jamestown
Disastrous Start What factors led to the disastrous start at Jamestown, Virginia? Pg. 43 • Not prepared to work – more interested ingold • Not prepared for the rugged life • John Smith injured • Powhatan natives begin to destroy cattle and crop • Starving time
Jamestown survives…. What role does tobacco play in the survival of Jamestown? P45
Labor force needed to grow tobacco……… Comparison of labor sources • Headright system • Paid own passage • Received 50 acres of land • Failed to provide enough labor • Indentured Servants • Worked in exchange for passage • Failed to provide enough labor • Slavery • 1619 • Imported in large numbers
Native Americans • What was the relationship between the colonists and the Native Americans? p.46 Marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe Chief Powhatan
Bacon’s Rebellion Nathaniel Bacon • Poor frontier farmers demanded that the Governor Berkeley protect them from the Natives • Berkeley refused • Nathaniel Bacon – led a rebellion against the governor • Bacon marches on Jamestown to speak with House ofBurgesses- 1st colonial legislature in America Nathaniel Bacon leads Virginia settlers against Native Americans during Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676.
Section 3 Puritan New England • Puritans – church members who wanted to “purify” or reform the Church of England. • Came to new world for religious reasons – believed that the Church of England was too Catholic • Origins- English Reformation – King Henry VIII broke from the Catholic church to form the Anglican Church. • Separatists (Pilgrims) were Puritans who believed that the Church could not be reformed – members should separate from the church. • Pilgrims – left England to escape persecution – founded Plymouth Colony in 1620 (2nd colony)
Dissent in the Puritan Community What problems did Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson have with Puritan beliefs? P.52 Roger Williams believed that land taken from the Indians must be paid for and settlers should not be punished for their religious beliefs – He founded Rhode Island based on religious freedom Anne Hutchinson – believed that worshipers did not need the church to interpret the Bible for them.
Disputes between Native American and Colonists Land Treaties • Native Americans • land treaties were agreements to share the land for which they received gifts. • Europeans • Land treaties were a one-time deal in which the Natives permanently sold their land to new owners.
Pequot War • 1637 first major conflict occurred when Pequot nation decided to fight back against the colonists. • Colonists nearly destroyed the Pequot nation in a brutal battle
King Philip’s War • Wampanoag chief Metacom (King Philip) leads war against the English settlers in New England in 1675. • War ends with English victory, but with many deaths
Section 4 Settlement of the Middle Atlantic Colonies • New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware • The Dutch founded New Netherland and named the capital New Amsterdam • The English drove the Dutch out of the colony and changed the name to New York • Divided into New York – New Jersey - Delaware
Penn’s Holy Experiment • William Penn started the colony of Pennsylvania for religious freedom for the Quakers. • How did Quaker beliefs compare to Puritan beliefs? P.57 Answer: held services w/o ministers, dressed plainly, everyone was equal, peaceful, representative government, freedom of religion
Southern Colonies • Maryland, Georgia, North & South Carolina, Virginia • Maryland – religious freedom • North and South Carolina – owners wanted to establish large plantations • Georgia – to help debtors