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Do Now • Complete a level-up quiz. If you finish early, study for your next quiz.
Textbook Notes Expectations • Title your notes with the book sub-headings (pink/orange) • Write any bold terms & definitions (green), THEN either re-write in own words or explain why important/how used (black) • Summarize major points from the textbook paragraph IF NECESSARY (Purple) • After reading the section – Write the starting question under the heading (black) and write a PARAGRAPH explaining the answer using information from the passage (purple)
Example - Myers p 25-26 The Scientific Method • Theory – an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events. • Theories explain or predict why things happen. They summarize multiple observations into a simple statement. Continue on your own!
Example - End of Notes Q: How do theories advance psychological science? A: Once we have an overarching idea or theory, we can write a testable hypothesis to help us evaluate it. Our results can either strengthen or weaken our theory. Writing clear operational definitions allows others to replicate our study so that we can reduce bias and inaccuracy in our results, further strengthening our theory.
The Scientific Method • Theory • “mere hunch” • Hypothesis • Can be confirmed or refuted • Operational Definition • Replication (repeat)
Theory = an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
Hypothesis = a testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
Operational Definition = a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. • i.e. Human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
In the following hypotheses, determine what terms need an operational definition. Then, write an operational definition for each term you identified. • Athletes who weigh more run slower than athletes who are lighter. 2. Studying improves academic performance. 3. People who consume caffeinated beverages in the morning have faster reaction times.
Replication = repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Creating a Research Study • Look again at the autism map I gave out at the beginning of the period. Create a THEORY that explains what you see. • Now, focus that theory into a testable HYPOTHESIS that would allow you to prove or disprove your idea.
Creating a Research Study • Look at your hypothesis. What terms might you need to OPERATIONALLY DEFINE? Do so now. • KEEP THE AUTISM MAP & YOUR WORK – we will continue to return to this throughout the research unit, applying what we have learned in each lesson.
Autism Map Look at your theory and hypothesis from the Autism map. We will be discussing different ways to conduct research, along with the pros and cons of each method. Take notes completing your chart as we discuss
DescriptionThe Case Study • Case Study Pros: • Can examine one subject or situation in depth • Useful when manipulating the situation is unethical (ex: Phineas Gage) • Suggest further study Cons: • Case specific - Cannot discern generalizable truths • The event may/may not happen again so it can be hard to create accurate theories
Case Study = an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
DescriptionThe Survey • Survey Pros: • Looks at many cases at once • Often fast to administer and score Cons: - Word effects - Subjects can lie - Sample may not be representative of the population
Survey = a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
DescriptionThe Survey • Sampling • Population • Random Sample • Example – Grade level percentages at KSJC • What happens if we use AP Psych class?
Population = all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. • Note: Except for national studies, this does NOT refer to a country’s whole population.
Random Sample = a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
DescriptionNaturalistic Observation • Naturalistic Observation Pros: • See subject in natural environment Cons: • Need to make inferences based on observations • Can’t control the environment • May not be generalizable
Naturalistic Observation = observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Studying Development • Longitudinal Study – Study the same group over time • Pros: Limit confounding variables due to differences in participants (generational variables) • Cons: Expensive & time consuming, large commitment for participants, loss of participants may create confounding variables • Cross-Sectional Study – Study people of different ages all at one time • Pros: Shorter & cheaper – less participant loss • Cons: Confounding variables (Generational, etc.)
Correlation Studies (More to Come!) • Examine the relationship between two or more variables Pros: - Can determine if there is a relationship between two things (ex – tv watching & violence) - Can come from already existing data, surveys, observations, etc. Cons: - Can NOT determine which variable is the cause!
Experimentation • Experiment Pros: • Can determine cause and effect Cons: • Hard to control for EVERY variable • Difficult to apply lab results to the real world Control of factors • Manipulation of the factor(s) of interest • Hold constant (“controlling”) factors
Experiment = a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
ExperimentationRandom Assignment • Random assignment • Eliminates alternative explanations • Different from random sample
Random Assigment = assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
Random Sample VS. Random Assignment With a Partner: • What is the difference between these two terms? • What is a mnemonic or image that would help you remember this difference?
ExperimentationRandom Assignment • Blind (uninformed) • Single-Blind Procedure • Double-Blind Procedure • Placebo Effect
Double-Blind Procedure = an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or the placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Placebo Effect = experimental results caused by expectation alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
ExperimentationIndependent and Dependent Variables • Independent Variable • Confounding variable • Effect of random assignment on confounding variables • Dependent Variable • What is being measured
Independent Variable = the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Confounding Variable = a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.
Dependent Variable = the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
ExperimentationRandom Assignment • Groups • Experimental Group • Receives the treatment (independent variable) • Control Group • Does not receive the treatment
Experimental Group = in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Control Group = in an experiment, the group that is NOT exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of treatment.
Think-Pair-Share • Based on what we have discussed, which method would you use to test your hypothesis based on the Autism map? • Why would you chose this method? • What things would you need to consider in order to ensure you had the most accurate results?