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Chapter: Cells—The Units of Life - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Table of Contents. Chapter: Cells—The Units of Life . Section 1: The World of Cells. Section 2: The Different Jobs of Cells. The World of Cells. Cells are important because they are organized structures that help living . things carry on the activities of life. 1. Importance of Cells.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Table of Contents

Chapter: Cells—The Units of Life

Section 1: The World of Cells

Section 2: The Different Jobs of Cells

slide2

The World of Cells

  • Cells are important because they are organized structures that help living

things carry on the activities of life.

1

Importance of Cells

  • A cell is the smallest unit of life in all living things.
  • Different cells have different jobs in living things.
slide3

The World of Cells

1. All living things are made of one or

more cells.

2. The cell is the basic unit of life in which

the activities of life occur.

3. All cells come from cells that already

exist.

1

Cell Theory

  • The three main ideas of the cell theory are:
slide4

The World of Cells

1

The Microscopic Cell

  • The smallest organisms on Earth are bacteria.
  • They are made up of only one cell.
slide5

The World of Cells

1

The Microscopic Cell

  • Larger organisms are made many cells.
  • These cells work together to complete all of the organism's life activities.
  • Your body contains more than 10 trillion (10,000,000,000,000) cells.
slide6

The World of Cells

1

What are cells made of?

  • As small as cells are, they are made of even smaller parts, each doing a different job.
slide7

The World of Cells

1

What are cells made of?

slide8

The World of Cells

1

Outside the Cell

  • The cell membrane is a flexible structure that holds the cell together.
  • The cell membrane forms a boundary between the cell and its environment.
slide9

The World of Cells

1

Outside the Cell

  • Some cells also have a structure outside the cell membrane called a cell wall.
  • The cell wall helps support and protect these cells.
slide10

The World of Cells

1

Inside the Cell

  • The inside of a cell is filled with a gelatin like substance called cytoplasm (SI tuh pla zum).
  • Approximately two-thirds of the cytoplasm is water, but it also contains many chemicals that are needed by the cell.
slide11

The World of Cells

1

Organelles

  • Except for bacterial cells, cells contain organelles(or guh NELZ).
  • These specialized cell parts can move around in the cytoplasm and perform activities that are necessary for life.
slide13

The World of Cells

1

The Nucleus

  • In the cells of organisms except bacteria, the hereditary material is in an organelle called the nucleus (NEW klee us).
slide14

The World of Cells

1

The Nucleus

  • Inside the nucleus are chromosomes (KROH muh zohmz).
  • Chromosomes contain an important chemical called DNA. It determines which traits an organism will have.
slide15

The World of Cells

1

Storage

  • In cells, food, water, and other substances are stored in balloon like organelles in the cytoplasm called vacuoles (VA kyuh wohlz).
  • Some vacuoles store wastes until the cell is ready to get rid of them.
slide16

The World of Cells

1

Energy and the Cell

  • Cells, except bacteria, have organelles called mitochondria (mi tuh KAHN dree uh).
  • An important process called cellular respiration takes place inside a mitochondrion.
slide17

The World of Cells

1

Energy and the Cell

  • Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions in which energy stored in food is converted to a form of energy that the cell can use.
slide18

The World of Cells

1

Nature's Solar Energy Factories

  • Animals obtain food from their surroundings.
  • Plants, algae, and many types of bacteria make food through a process called photosynthesis(foh toh SIHN thuh sus).
slide19

The World of Cells

1

Nature's Solar Energy Factories

  • Most photosynthesis in plants occurs in leaf cells.
  • Inside these cells are green organelles called chloroplasts(KLOR uh plats).
slide20

The World of Cells

1

Nature's Solar Energy Factories

  • During plant photosynthesis chloroplasts capture light energy and combine carbon dioxide from the air with water to make food.
  • As the plant needs energy, its mitochondria release the food's energy.
diffusion and osmosis

Diffusion and Osmosis

Diffusion is the tendency of a substance to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Ex: the iodine moved from outside of the baggy to inside the baggy in the activity “Moving in and Out of Cells”.

Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a membrane such as the cell membrane in order to maintain a balance of water inside and outside of the cell. Ex: the raisin activity.

slide22

The Different Jobs of Cells

2

Special Cells for Special Jobs

  • Cells that make up many-celled organisms, like you, are specialized.
  • Different kinds of specialized cells work as a team to perform the activities of a many-celled organism.
slide23

The Different Jobs of Cells

2

Types of Human Cells

  • Your body is made up of many types of specialized cells.
  • A cell's shape and size can be related to its function.
slide24

The Different Jobs of Cells

2

Types of Plant Cells

  • Plants also are made of several different cell types.
  • Plants have different types of cells in their leaves, roots, and stems.
slide25

The Different Jobs of Cells

2

Types of Plant Cells

  • Some cells in plant stems are long and tubelike. Together they form a system through which water, food, and other materials move in the plant.
  • Other cells are smaller or thicker. They provide strength to the stems.
slide26

The Different Jobs of Cells

2

Cell Organization

  • Many-celled organisms are not just mixed-up collections of different types of cells.
  • Cells are organized into systems that, together, perform functions that keep the organism healthy and alive.
slide27

The Different Jobs of Cells

Blood is a Tissue

2

Tissues and Organs

  • Cells that are alike are organized into tissue (TIH shewz).
  • Tissues are groups of similar cells that all do the same sort of work.
slide28

The Different Jobs of Cells

2

Tissues and Organs

  • Different types of tissues working together can form a structure called an organ (OR gun).
  • The stomach is an organ that includes muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and blood tissue.
  • Other human organs include the heart and the kidneys.
slide29

The Different Jobs of Cells

2

Organs Systems

  • A group of organs that work together to do a certain job is called an organ system.
  • Organ systems found in your body include the respiratory system, the circulatory system, the reproductive system, and the nervous system.

Click box to view movie.

slide30

The Different Jobs of Cells

2

Organs Systems

  • Organ systems also work together.
  • For example, the muscular system has more than 600 muscles that are attached to bones.
  • The contracting cells of muscle tissue cause your bones, which are part of the skeletal system, to move.