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Women & Men in Management . Chapter 5 – Working in Diverse Teams. Work Teams Today. Current increase in organizations’ use of work teams to: Achieve strategic objectives Produce goods and services Design new products Solve organizational problems Lead organizations

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women men in management

Women & Men in Management

Chapter 5 – Working in Diverse Teams

work teams today
Work Teams Today
  • Current increase in organizations’ use of work teams to:
    • Achieve strategic objectives
    • Produce goods and services
    • Design new products
    • Solve organizational problems
    • Lead organizations
  • Teams are used across all industries and global organizations
sex effects in mixed sex teams
Sex Effects in Mixed-Sex Teams
  • Definition: When men’s and women’s behavior in teams or experiences as team members differ
  • In mixed-sex teams:
    • Sex is a distinguishing factor between others
    • Influences interactions
    • Influences the evaluation of behaviors
dimensions of communication and behavior
Dimensions of Communication and Behavior
  • Communication style
    • Self-assertion and dominance (male associated)
    • Deference and warmth (female associated)
  • Behavior types
    • Task behaviors
      • Males devote a somewhat higher percentage of communications to task behavior
    • Social behaviors
      • Women display a higher percentage of positive social behaviors
evaluation of task contributions and group influence
Evaluation of Task Contributions and Group Influence
  • Men:
    • Have more positive evaluations of their task contributions
    • Tend to have more influence in mixed-sex teams
    • Are more likely to become informal leaders
evaluation of task contributions and group influence1
Evaluation of Task Contributions and Group Influence
  • Women:
    • Tend to devalue their own performances
    • Are judged on a higher standard
    • Receive less social support from team members when recognized as better performers
    • Are more influenced than men
increasing evaluations of influence
Increasing Evaluations of Influence
  • Female behaviors
    • Confidence, assertiveness
      • Receive less feedback, makes a woman less influential, especially among male team members
      • Increases influence among other women
      • Viewed as less likeable than male counterpart
    • Assertiveness combined with “friendly, nice” behaviors
      • Demonstrates a desire to help the entire group
      • Combination not required of men
sex similarity effects
Sex Similarity Effects
  • How does team composition affect women’s and men’s experiences as team members?
  • Factors to consider:
    • If the individual’s sex in the group is a minority
    • Women vs. men in the minority
    • Exact number of each sex within the group
four major work groups
Four Major Work Groups

Two Extremes: Uniform and Balanced groups

  • Uniform groups
    • All males or all females (no sex issues)
  • Balanced groups
    • Approximately equal numbers of women and men
four major work groups1
Four Major Work Groups

Between Uniform and Balanced

  • Skewed groups
    • Ratio of one sex to another 85:15 to nearly 100:0
    • Dominants vs. Tokens
    • Tokens are viewed as representatives of their sex
  • Tilted groups
    • Ratio of one sex to another 65:35 to 85:15
    • Minorities tend to ally, and are distinguishable from each other and the majority
tokens in skewed groups
Tokens in Skewed Groups
  • How are tokens treated?
    • Seen as representatives of their sex, not individuals
    • Receive special treatment detrimental to:
      • Performance
      • Attachment to the group
    • Face performance pressures, due to high visibility
    • Work harder to have accomplishments recognized
    • Excluded from social activities
    • May experience stereotyping effects
male vs female tokens
Male vs. Female Tokens
  • Research has shown that…
    • Women typically feel the negative effects of token status, especially in male-intensive settings
    • Men experience attention that works to their advantage in female-intensive settings
      • Nursing example
    • Men are very (negatively) sensitive to sex composition changes from male-dominance to a more balanced group
sex diversity effects
Sex Diversity Effects
  • Pessimistic view
    • Identification with similar others causes members to reject those who are different
    • Leads to:
      • Factions
      • Conflict
      • Communication breakdowns
    • Group performance and member satisfaction are impaired
sex diversity effect
Sex Diversity Effect
  • Optimistic view
    • Differences among members enhance creativity and problem-solving ability
    • More likely to occur on complex tasks and innovation
    • Greater diversity increases interaction and decreases prejudice and stereotyping
    • Improves relations among team members
which has more prevalence
Which Has More Prevalence?
  • Mixed results
  • Recognize: sex diversity has advantages and disadvantages
  • Set goals: maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages
importance of situational factors
Importance of Situational Factors
  • Team demographic composition
    • More subgroups = less negative effects
  • Team longevity
    • Greater team longevity = less importance in sex composition
  • Sex-neutral, cooperative tasks
  • Electronic communication technologies
    • Reduce sex-based categorization
    • Benefits women more than men
importance of situational factors1
Importance of Situational Factors
  • Demographics of the larger organization
  • Sex composition of the top management team
    • Can influence the relative status of women and men in smaller teams
  • Organizational culture and values
    • A cooperative culture reduces negative effects of sex diversity
    • An inclusive diversity culture stresses equality and recognizes merits of all types of individuals
  • Societal culture
chapter 5 terms
Chapter 5 Terms
  • Sex effects
  • Sex similarity effects
  • Sex diversity effects
  • Self-assertion and dominance
  • Deference and warmth
  • Task Behaviors
  • Social Behaviors
  • Task contributions
  • Social support
  • Influence
  • Informal leader
  • Uniform groups
  • Balanced groups
  • Skewed groups
  • Tilted groups
  • Tokens in skewed groups
  • Pessimistic view of sex diversity effects
  • Optimistic view of sex diversity effects
  • Overall demographic composition
  • Longevity
  • Sex-neutral, cooperative tasks
  • Electronic communication technologies
  • Demographic composition of the larger organization
  • Top management team sex composition
  • Cooperative culture
  • Inclusive diversity culture