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A Unified Model of IT Use Choices: Contributions from TAM, TTF, and CSE. Diane M. Strong* Worcester Polytechnic Institute Invited Presentation First Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS Barcelona, Spain 2002 * This is joint work with Mark T. Dishaw, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh.

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a unified model of it use choices contributions from tam ttf and cse
A Unified Model of IT Use Choices: Contributions from TAM, TTF, and CSE

Diane M. Strong*

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Invited Presentation

First Annual Workshop on HCI Research in MIS

Barcelona, Spain 2002

*This is joint work with Mark T. Dishaw, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

Diane M. Strong, WPI

general research objective
General Research Objective
  • Understand the software utilization choices of end users, by using and extending existing models
    • Task-technology Fit (TTF) models
    • Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
    • Individual Abilities Constructs, e.g., Experience, Computer Self-efficacy
  • Conduct a series of studies testing the models and combinations of them

Diane M. Strong, WPI

task technology fit models
Task-Technology Fit Models

Diane M. Strong, WPI

1 ttf model study
1. TTF Model Study

Operationalize the TTF model in the software maintenance context

  • Task Model - Vessey's debugging model (planning, knowledge building, diagnosis, modification activities) plus coordination
  • Technology Model - Henderson & Cooprider Functional Case Technology Model (Production and Coordination functionality)

Diane M. Strong, WPI

dimensions of fit
Dimensions of Fit
  • Fit along two dimensions
    • Production Fit: how well the tool’s production functions support software maintenance activities
    • Coordination Fit: how well the tool’s coordination functions support maintenance coordination activities
  • Compute Fit using an interaction approach (Venkatramen, 1989)

(Dishaw & Strong, 1998)

Diane M. Strong, WPI

2 add experience to ttf
2. Add Experience to TTF

Operationalize Individual Abilities as:

  • experience with the task
  • experience with the technology

Tool experience and its interaction with tool characteristics is significant

Task experience not significant

Adjusted R2 of 0.63

(Dishaw & Strong, Forthcoming)

Diane M. Strong, WPI

3 combined tam and ttf
3. Combined TAM and TTF
  • TAM: beliefs about the technology, i.e., perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use
  • TTF: matching of the technology to the needs of the task to deliver benefits
  • TAM + TTF: addresses both technology beliefs and rationally computed fit to task
    • Tool experience as an individual ability
    • Path model, rather than regression
    • Fit as latent variable, rather than computed as interaction

Diane M. Strong, WPI

ttf tam combined model
TTF-TAM Combined Model

Diane M. Strong, WPI

combined tam ttf results
Combined TAM / TTF Results

Better results than either TAM or TTF alone

Utilization variance explained:

  • 36% with TAM
  • 41% with TTF
  • 51% with TAM/TTF

(Dishaw and Strong, 1999)

Diane M. Strong, WPI

4 add computer self efficacy work in progress
4. Add Computer Self-efficacy(Work-in-progress)
  • CSE may be a better predictor of individual ability for new tools than is tool experience
  • Generalize TTF assessment beyond software maintenance tasks and tools
    • Develop an instrument for assessing problem-solving tasks, and the support of such tasks with software
    • Test previous TTF and TAM/TTF models with a new dataset

Diane M. Strong, WPI

computer self efficacy
Computer Self-Efficacy
  • Derived from the Social Cognition literature, and is based on Bandura’s work on self-efficacy
  • A specialized definition of Self-efficacy, i.e., a person’s belief in their ability to accomplish a specific task
  • A judgment of one’s ability to use a computer

Diane M. Strong, WPI

adding cse to ttf tam
Adding CSE to TTF/TAM

Diane M. Strong, WPI

model operationalization
Model Operationalization
  • Software maintenance TTF is generalized by changing the questionnaire items since
    • Task model is well grounded in the problem solving and cognitive science literature
    • Technology model is grounded in the literature on information technology support functionality
  • Add Compeau & Higgins (1995) 10-item, single factor measure of CSE

Diane M. Strong, WPI

item and scale testing
Item and Scale Testing
  • Item Testing using a panel of faculty, advanced students, and professionals
  • Pilot Study using a small number students and professionals in the university

Diane M. Strong, WPI

data collection
Data Collection
  • Use revised instrument
  • Subjects are students in several classes after the completion of an ordinary assignment
  • Currently, have 136 data points from:
    • Operations Management simulation class doing modeling
    • Programming class doing 3 GL program maintenance
    • Programming class doing OO program maintenance
    • Business analysis class doing statistical modeling

Diane M. Strong, WPI

data analysis
Data Analysis

Using Amos 4.0, test the models

  • TTF
  • TTF plus CSE
  • Combined TAM/TTF
  • Combined TAM/TTF plus CSE

Have results for Models 1 and 2

Diane M. Strong, WPI

general ttf model
General TTF Model
  • Chi Sq. 26.77, d.f. 17, p=0.061
  • AGFI = 0.89, GFI = 0.95

Diane M. Strong, WPI

general ttf model with cse
General TTF Model with CSE
  • Chi Sq. 27.24, d.f. 22, p=0.202
  • AGFI = 0.91, GFI = 0.96

Diane M. Strong, WPI

lessons for a unified model importance of task
Lessons for a Unified Model:Importance of Task
  • Traditional HCI focuses on Usability, with little or no Task emphasis
  • TAM adds Usefulness, which implicitly includes Task
  • TTF has explicit Task focus, which adds to the explanatory power

Diane M. Strong, WPI

lessons for a unified model the fit construct
Lessons for a Unified Model:The Fit Construct
  • Beyond production and coordination Fit to additional dimensions of Fit
  • Beyond a point estimate of Fit to a process of Fitting over time (as in implementation)
  • Beyond individual level models (TTF, TAM) to organizational level models, e.g., for Enterprise systems

Diane M. Strong, WPI

lessons for a unified model experience and cse
Lessons for a Unified Model:Experience and CSE
  • Measure Experience and Self-efficacy for both Task and Technology
  • Self-efficacy theory: As Experience increases, Experience dominates abilities as measured by Self-efficacy
    • Need to better understand relationship between Experience and Self-efficacy

Diane M. Strong, WPI

references to the studies
References to the Studies

Study 1: Dishaw, M. T. and D. M. Strong, "Supporting Software Maintenance with Software Engineering Tools: A Computed Task-Technology Fit Analysis", Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 44, No. 2, December 1998, pp. 107-120.

Study 2: Dishaw, M. T. and D. M. Strong, "The Effect of Task and Tool Experience on Maintenance CASE Tool Usage", Information Resources Management Journal, Forthcoming.

Study 3: Dishaw, M. T. and D. M. Strong, "Extending the Technology Acceptance Model with Task-Technology Fit Constructs", Information & Management, Vol. 36, No. 1, July 1999, pp. 9-21.

Study 4 (in-progress): Dishaw, M. T., D. M. Strong, and D. B. Bandy, “Extending the Task-Technology Fit Model with Self-Efficacy Constructs”, Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems, August 9-11, 2002, Dallas, TX, pp. 1021-1027.

Diane M. Strong, WPI