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Exam R 12 pm Review T 2 SL120. NO GRAPHING CALULATORS!!!!!!!!!. Figure 2.16: Molecular and structural formulas and molecular models. Ethanol. Fig. 2.18. Figure 2.19: A model of a portion of NaCl. The Periodic Table of the Elements Most Probable Oxidation State. +1. 0. +2. +3. +_4.

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slide1

Exam R 12 pm

Review T 2 SL120.

NO GRAPHING CALULATORS!!!!!!!!!

slide6

The Periodic Table of the Elements

Most Probable Oxidation State

+1

0

+2

+3

+_4

- 3

- 2

- 1

H

He

Li

Be

B

C

N

O

F

Ne

+3

+4

+5

+1

+ 2

Na

Mg

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

Ar

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

V

Cu

Zn

Ga

Ge

As

Se

Br

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

Kr

Rb

Sr

Zr

Nb

Ag

I

Mo

Tc

Ru

Rh

Pd

Xe

Y

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Ba

Au

Hg

W

Re

Os

Ir

Pt

Rn

Cs

La

Hf

Ta

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

At

Fr

Ra

Ac

Rf

Du

Sg

Bo

Ha

Me

+3

Ce

Pr

Nd

Pm

Sm

Eu

Gd

Tb

Dy

Ho

Er

Tm

Yb

Lu

Th

Pa

U

Np

Pu

Am

Cm

Bk

Cf

Es

Fm

Md

No

Lr

+3

slide11

Don’t use these

when naming ionic

compounds--they’re

ONLY for covalent

compounds!!

slide12

Chemical Formulas

Empirical Formula- Shows the relative number of atoms

of each element in the compound. It is the simplest

formula, and is derived from masses of the elements.

Molecular Formula - Shows the actual number of atoms

of each element in the molecule of the compound.

Structural Formula - Shows the actual number of atoms,

and the bonds between them ; that is, the arrangement

of atoms in the molecule.

figure 2 23 molecular model of nitric acid
Figure 2.23: Molecular model of nitric acid.

What is the formula for nitric acid?

HNO3

conceptual problem 2 26 model of water kci methanol ammonia
Conceptual Problem 2.26: model of water, KCI, methanol, ammonia.

water

ammonia

ethanol

potassium chloride

figure 2 28 representation of the reaction of methane with oxygen
Figure 2.28: Representation of the reaction of methane with oxygen.

Write a balanced chemical reaction for this combustion reaction.

CH4(g) + 2 O2 (g) 2 H2 O(l) + CO2(g)

Write this reaction in words:

Methane gas plus 2 oxygens make 2 waters and one carbon dioxide

figure 2 26 the burning of propane gas photo courtesy of american color
Figure 2.26: The burning of propane gas. Photo courtesy of American Color.

Write a balanced equation for this combustion

reaction. The products are carbon dioxide and

water. First write the reaction.

C3H8 + O2  H2O + CO2

Then balance it.

C3H8 + 5 O2  4 H2 O + 3 CO2

Then add physical states.

C3H8 (g) + 5 O2 (g)  4 H2 O (l) + 3 CO2 (g)

figure 3 3 reaction of zinc and iodine causing iodine to vaporize photo courtesy of james scherer
Figure 3.3: Reaction of zinc and iodine causing iodine to vaporize.Photo courtesy of James Scherer.
chemical equations
Chemical Equations

Qualitative Information:

Reactants

Products

States of Matter: (s) solid

(l) liquid

(g) gaseous

(aq) aqueous

2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O (g)

balanced equations
Balanced Equations
  • mass balance (atom balance)- same number of each element(1) start with simplest element(2) progress to other elements (3) make all whole numbers (4) re-check atom balance
  • charge balance (no “spectator” ions)

1 CH4 (g) + O2 (g) 1 CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

1 CH4 (g) + O2 (g) 1 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

1 CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) 1 CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (g)

Ca2+ (aq) + 2 OH- (aq) Ca(OH)2 (s)

+ Na+

+ Na+

slide24

C6H14 (l) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O(g) + Energy

Balancing Chemical Equations - I

Problem: The hydrocarbon hexane is a component of Gasoline that

burns in an automobile engine to produce carbon dioxide and

water as well as energy. Write the balanced chemical

equation for the combustion of hexane (C6H14).

Plan: Write the skeleton equation from the words into chemical

compoundswith blanks before each compound. begin the

balance with the most complex compound first, and save oxygen

until last!

Solution:

C6H14 (l) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O(g) + Energy

Begin with one Hexane molecule which says that we will get 6 CO2’s!

1

6

slide25

C6H14 (l) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O(g) + Energy

2

C6H14 (l) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O(g) + Energy

12

14

2

C6H14 (l) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) + H2O(g) + Energy

12

14

Balancing Chemical Equations - II

The H atoms in the hexane will end up as H2O, and we have 14

H atoms, and since each water molecule has two H atoms, we will get

a total of 7 water molecules.

1

6

7

Since oxygen atoms only come as diatomic molecules

(two O atoms, O2),we must have even numbers of oxygen atoms on the

product side. We do not since we have 7 water molecules! Therefore

multiply the hexane by 2, giving a total of 12 CO2 molecules, and

14 H2O molecules.

This now gives 12 O2 from the carbon dioxide, and 14 O atoms from the

water, which will be another 7 O2 molecules for a total of 19 O2 !

19

slide26

Predicting the Ion an Element Will Form in Chemical Reactions

Problem: What monoatomic ions will each of the elements form?

(a) Barium(z=56) (b) Sulfur(z=16) (c) Titanium(z =22) (d) Fluorine(z=9)

Plan: We use the “z” value to find the element in the periodic table and

which is the nearest noble gas. Elements that lie after a noble gas will

loose electrons, and those before a noble gas will gain electrons.

Solution:

(a) Ba+2, Barium is an alkaline earth element, Group 2A, and is

expected to loose two electrons to attain the same number of electrons

as the noble gas Xenon!

(b) S -2, Sulfur is in the Oxygen family, Group 6A, and is expected to

gain two electrons to attain the same number of electrons as the noble

gas Argon!

(c) Ti+4, Titanium is in Group 4B, and is expected to loose 4 electrons

to attain the same number of electrons as the noble gas Argon!

(d) F -, Fluorine is in a halogen, Group 7A, and is expected to gain one

electron, to attain the same number of electrons as the noble gas Neon!