Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?

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Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?
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Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?

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  1. Do Now: Is the dancer turning clockwise or counter clockwise?

  2. Do Now

  3. What your brain just did…

  4. What is the structure of the brain? Brain Over 100 Billion Cells • Comprised of three major parts • Lower Brain • Mid Brain • Cerebrum and Cerebral Cortex • (upper brain) Each part works with others to control what think feel and do.

  5. What does the brain look like? • Tightly compressed macaroni • Studying uses more energy than jogging • Uses 20% of your oxygen • Is protected in multiple ways.

  6. Broad, thick band running from side to side and consisting of millions and millions of nerve fibers. Connections between left and right sides of brain. Highway of information – it is the Newburgh-Beacon Bridge of the I-84 of your brain! Corpus Callosum

  7. Upper Brain Mid Brain Lower Brain Brain Stem

  8. What is the Upper Brain? • Cerebral Cortex: outermost layer of brain covers the cerebrum – gray matter. • Higher level thought • 100 Billion nerve cells • It is the most highly developed part of the human brain and is responsible for thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language. • It is also the most recent structure in the history of brain evolution

  9. Why is the cerebral cortex so important? • Personality: makes us “human” • “Seat of the soul” • Example: when faced with severe brain injury to frontal lobe– personality sometimes changes completely • Strokes, tumors – sometimes causes this

  10. What does the mid brain do? Possible connection?

  11. What does the lower brain do?

  12. Hemispheres • Brain divided into two sides • Fissure: groove along center • Right: controls left • Left: controls right

  13. Right Brain or Left Brain?

  14. Do Now: • You have inherited 1,000,000 dollars! Congratulations! You are moving to new house you are having made and have to pack your things in boxes. • How will you pack your priceless glassware that Aunt Edna left you in her will to make sure they don’t break? If any of them break, the money has to be given to a distant cousin. Describe in a few sentences how you will pack the glasses?

  15. Where does the brain sit?

  16. How is the brain protected? • Protected by the thick bones of the skull • Cerebral Cortex covering • Suspended in cerebrospinal fluid • Isolated from the bloodstream by the blood-brain barrier a semi-permeable membrane that protects the brain. • The delicate nature of the human brain makes it susceptible to many types of damage and disease. • Infection of the brain is rare because of the barriers that protect it, but is very serious when it occurs. • Multiple Sclerosis-mylen, insulation for nerves, is impaired. • Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Chorea = CNS diseases

  17. Phineas Gage: Neuroscience’s Most Famous Patient

  18. Summary There are three parts to the brain on a horizontal level • Upper Brain: higher level thinking • Mid Brain: (Limbic System)vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation • Lower Brain: primitive functions, aggression, fight or flight • Brain Stem: autonomic functions • Two hemispheres – right hemisphere controls left, left hemisphere controls right • Brain Dominance Theory: Right brain dominant – art, language, creative. Left brain – logical, math, organized

  19. What is a stroke? • A stroke is a medical emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. "Mini-strokes" or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted. Symptoms of stroke are • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg (especially on one side of the body) • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination • Sudden severe headache with no known cause • If you have any of these symptoms, you must get to a hospital quickly to begin treatment. Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the blood clot or by stopping the bleeding. Post-stroke rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke damage. Drug therapy with blood thinners is the most common treatment for stroke. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  20. Do Now: Make a happy face Make an angry face Make a sad face Make a fearful face How do you know how to do that? Face Blindness Test

  21. Cerebral cortex: covers brain (gray matter) Fissure: groove along middle of brain Parietal Lobe: sensory strip Motor Strip: along frontal lobe - movement Temporal Lobe: speech, hearing Prefrontal Lobe: :personal memories Occipital Lobe: interprets visual information Frontal Lobe::reasoning, personality, Thought, complex thoughts Cerebellum: balance, coordination Reticular Activating System: alertness

  22. Do Now: This is a G rated activity– touch the area where your corpus callosum (under the fissure) is Now touch your frontal lobe. Now your Parietal lobe Now your Temporal lobe Now your Occipital lobe Now your Cerebellum Now your Medulla Oblongata

  23. What are some other parts of their brain and their purpose? Brain stem: internal physical state of body Medulla Oblongata: breathing, heartbeat Pons: regulates brain during sleep Thalamus: relay station between senses and cerebral cortex Cerebellum: balance and movement Limbic system: emotions, memory Hippocampus: long term memory Amygdala: aggression, emotion, motives, (very active during adolescence) Hypothalamus: eating, drinking, body temperature

  24. Reading: Disorders of the Brain • Attention Deficit Disorder • TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury • Alzheimer’s Disease • Dementia with Lewey Bodies: • Although, where Alzheimer’s disease usually begins quite gradually, DLB often has a rapid or acute onset, with especially rapid decline in the first few months. • While the specific symptoms in a person with DLB will vary, core features of DLB are: 1) fluctuating cognition with great variations in attention and alertness from day to day and hour to hour 2) recurrent visual hallucinations. 3.)REM Behavior Disorder

  25. Cerebral cortex: covers brain (gray matter) Fissure: groove along middle of brain Parietal Lobe: sensory strip Motor Strip: along frontal lobe - movement Temporal Lobe: speech, hearing Prefrontal Lobe: :personal memories Occipital Lobe: interprets visual information Frontal Lobe::reasoning, personality, Thought, complex thoughts Cerebellum: balance, coordination Reticular Activating System: alertness

  26. Joe’s Brain: Split Brain Surgery Split Brain Game

  27. Dr. Oliver Saks In 1966 Dr. Sacks began working as a consulting neurologist for Beth Abraham Hospital in the Bronx, a chronic care hospital where he encountered an extraordinary group of patients, many of whom had spent decades in strange, frozen states, like human statues, unable to initiate movement. He recognized these patients as survivors of the great pandemic of sleepy sickness that had swept the world from 1916 to 1927, and treated them with a then-experimental drug, L-dopa, which enabled them to come back to life. They became the subjects of his book Awakenings, which later inspired a play by Harold Pinter ("A Kind of Alaska") and the Oscar-nominated feature film ("Awakenings") with Robert De Niro and Robin Williams.

  28. What are Neurons? Myelinated neurons are found in the peripheral nerves (sensory and motor neurons), while non-myelinated neurons are found in the brain and spinal cord.

  29. Synapses, neurotransmitters, neurons…oh my!

  30. lhttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.htmllhttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/drugs/mouse.html

  31. Reuptake • The main objective of a Reuptake Inhibitor is to substantially decrease the rate by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed, leaving a large gain in the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse. • Example: Antidepressant drugs often use ssris (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) to cause a GAIN in amount of serotonin in brain.

  32. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/reward/madneuron.htmlhttp://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/addiction/reward/madneuron.html

  33. Serotonin Overdose

  34. What did we learn? • Myelin: fatty sheath that covers nerves similar to an electrical wire – lesions can cause neurological symptoms • Neurons: Motor = brain to body, Sensory = body to brain, Interneuron=connections between nerves, Receptors=receive neurotransmitter • Neurotransmitters: electrical/chemical messages passed along by neurons • Serotonin: happy chemical • Dopamine: movement • Acetylcholine: sleep, attention • Endorphins: natural morphine

  35. DO NOW: Reading: What are reflexes? • Read article • Answer questions for “reading” …you will answer the “listening” questions at the end of class and hand in.

  36. What are reflexes? A reflex is an involuntary or automatic, action that your body does in response to something - without you even having to think about it. There are many types of reflexes and every healthy person has them. In fact, we're born with most of them…and most of them fade by age 6 months. Some infant reflexes that show up in adulthood can be signs of neurological disease.

  37. Why do we have reflexes? • Reflexes protect your body from things that can harm it. • For example, if you put your hand on a hot stove, a reflex causes you to immediately remove your hand before a "Hey, this is hot!" message even gets to your brain • Other examples of protective reflexes are blinking when something flies toward your eyes or raising your arm if a ball is thrown your way. Even coughing and sneezing are reflexes. They clear the airways of irritating things

  38. What are the reasons for reflexes? • Evolutionary Perspective? • Survival Instinct? • Reflexes take place without traveling from brain (motor neurons) to sensory neurons • They use inter-neurons to communicate without direct motor neurons! How are reflexes different than reactions?

  39. Common Reflexes Babinski (foot) Moro (startle Tonic (fencing) Rooting (sucking) Pupillary (eyes – constriction Or dilation) Galant (leaning against side of spine that is stroked)

  40. Pupillary Response

  41. Babinski Reflex • Babinski's reflex occurs when the big toe moves toward the top of the foot and the other toes fan out after the sole of the foot has been firmly stroked. • This reflex, or sign, is normal in younger children, but abnormal after the age of 2 • The presence of a Babinski's reflex after age 2 is a sign of damage to the nerve paths connecting the spinal cord and the brain

  42. Babinski on Infant

  43. Babinski Explanation

  44. Moro Reflex • It is normally present in all infants/newborns up to 4 or 5 months of age • Absence indicates a profound disorder of the motor system. • Persistence of the Moro response beyond 4 or 5 months of age is noted only in infants with severe neurological defects • It is believed to be the only unlearned fear in human newborns

  45. Moro

  46. Tonic (Fencers) Reflex • known as the “fencing reflex" because of the characteristic position of the infant's arms and head, which resembles that of a trained fencer. • Beyond the first months of life may indicate that the child has developmental delays, at which point the reflex is atypical or abnormal. For example, in children with cerebral palsy the reflexes may persist and even be more pronounced.

  47. Tonic