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The Blood

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The Blood

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  1. The Blood

  2. Blood • Liquid connective tissue • Hemotology: study of blood, flood forming tissues, and associated disorders

  3. Physical Characteristics • Red Viscous Fluid • Temperature is 38 degrees Celsius or 100.4 degrees Farienheit • pH 7.35-7.45 • Salt Content: .8 - .9 % • Approximately 8% of body mass • Volume 5-6 Liters (10-12 pints)

  4. Functions 1. Transport: • A. Gasses: oxygen and carbon dioxide • B. Nutrients • C. Wastes • D. Regulating factors: hormones and enzymes • Heat dissipation • Maintenance of Acid/Base equilibrium • Protects from loss of volume (clotting mechanisms • Protection from disease/toxins/microbes

  5. Formed Elements • 1. Erythrocytes ( Red blood corpusels) RBC’s • Most abundant • Females: 4.9 million/drop • Males: 5 million/drop • Biconcave disc • 1.1 x 7.7 x 2.2 micrometers • Flexible membrane (bag of hemoglobin (Hb) no nucleus) • Fetal hemoglobin is replaced by adult Hb

  6. Hemoglobin • Heme: iron = oxygen carrier • Globin: protein • Hb + Oxgen = oxyhemoglobin • 90% of oxygen is carried this way • Hb + Carbon dixoide = carboxyhemoglobin • 30% of carbon dioxide is carried this way • The rest is HCO3 anion dissolved

  7. Red Blood Cell • Life span: 120 days • Then removed by macrophages in the spleen, liver or one marrow • Hemoglobin is then converted by the liver to billirubin • RBC are produced and destroyed at 2 million/second • Erythropoeisis: RBC formation • Stimulated by a lack of oxygen in tissues (hypoxia) • Kidney’s release Renal Erythropoetic factor- which stimulates plasma protein to become Erythropeotin- which stimulated the bone marrow

  8. Hematocrit (HCt) • Measure of the % of RBC’s present : • Females: 40-54 % • Males: 38-47% • Anemia: lack of circulating Red Blood Cells • Polycythemia: excess of Red Blood Cells

  9. Formed Elements The Anatomy of Red Blood Cells Figure 11-2

  10. Leukocytes: WBC • Have a nucleus • No definite shape • Exhibit ameoboid action(move independently)

  11. Types of Leukocytes • Granulocytes- formed in bone marrow • Neutrophils: most numerous 60-70% • phagocytic cells • Contain amino acids with a wide range of antibiotic activity B. Eosinophils ( acidophiles) release chemical inhibitors that combat histamines, leave the vessel to phagocytes immune complexes produced by allergic response and specific parasitic infections 2-4 % of WBC’s C. Basophils: tissue mass cells that release histamine and seratonin, initiate and intensify the immune response (.5 to 1% of WBC) short life span

  12. Agranulocytes (lymphatic tissue) • Lymphocytes: responsible for specific immunity by antibiotics and sensitized cells • 20-25% of WBC count long life span (years) E. Monocytes: large phagocytes activated by invasion of foreign protein 3-8% of WBC count Normal WBC count: 5,000 to 10,000/drop Leukopenia- abnormally low level of WBC Leukocytosis- increased (desired) in the number of WBC’s (means body is fighting off disease) Leukemia- malignancy- loss of control over the # and maturity of WBC’s

  13. Thrombocytes: formed element platelets: round/oval disk without a nucleus fragile membrane Function: 1. initiate clotting mechanism 2. 5-9 day life span 3. 250,000 to 400,000/drop

  14. Matrix: Plasma • Makes up 55% of whole blood • Components • 1. water= 91.5% • 2. proteins= 7% • Albumin- osmotic pressure • Globulins- antibodies produced by plamsa cells • Fibrogens- formed in the liver • 3. Non-protein/Nitrogen Solutes • NPN waste products (urea, uric acid, creatine) • 4. Nutrients: fatty acids • Glycerol, glucose, amino acids, • Ions sodium, potasium, clorine, phosphate, calcium • 5. Regulating Factors; endocrine hormones, enzymes, vitamins

  15. Hemostasis (stop the bleeding) • 1. Vascular Spasm: when damage occurs: the smooth muscle in a blood vessel wall contracts- stopping or reducing blood flow for 30 minutes • 2. Platelet Plug- (capillaries) when thrombocytes come in contact with rough surfaces they become sticky adhering to the vessel wall and each other • Stops bleeding in capillaries and small vessels • 3. Coagulation “cascade reaction” Syneresis: loss of water by fibrin pulls wound edges together. Plasminogen: plasmin dissolves the clot Embolus: clot that travels Coronary embolism Pulmonary embolism Cranial embolism (CVA) stroke

  16. The Structure of a Blood Clot Figure 11-9

  17. Blood Types Agglutination: clumping of incompatible blood types RBC: agglutinogens A, B Type A: AA, AO Type B: BB, BO Type AB: AB Type O: OO ( Drawing)

  18. Rh Factor: D • ++, +-, -- • Erythroblastosis Fetalis: destruction of Fetal Rh+ RBC in an Rh- mother, may result in anemia or death • Rhogam to prevent

  19. Other Blood Group Markers MN Blood Group co-dominant M (mm) N (nn) MN (mn) autosomal not significant in transfusions HLA – Human Leukocyte Antigen 30,000,000 HLA Genotypes Rejection of Tissues