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THE BLOOD PLASMA. Lecture -1 Dr. Zahoor Ali Shaikh. BLOOD. We will discuss i). Compositions and Functions of Blood, Plasma ii). Hematocrit iii). Plasma Protein. BLOOD. What is Blood ?

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the blood plasma

THE BLOODPLASMA

Lecture -1

Dr. Zahoor Ali Shaikh

blood
BLOOD
  • We will discuss

i). Compositions and Functions of Blood, Plasma

ii). Hematocrit

iii). Plasma Protein

blood1
BLOOD
  • What is Blood ?
  • It is transport medium in the body. It transports O2 and substances absorbed from GIT [Gastro Intestinal Tract] to the tissues and returns CO2 to lungs and products of metabolism to the kidneys.
blood2
BLOOD
  • Functions of Blood
  • Carries O2 to the tissues and transports CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
  • Transport of materials between the cells.
  • Buffers changes in pH.
  • Helps in regulation of body temperature.
  • Plays major role in body defense system.
  • Minimizes blood loss, when blood vessel is damaged [blood clotting].
blood3
BLOOD
  • What is composition of Blood ?
  • It has

1. Plasma – 55%

2. Cells - 45%

Cells are

-Erythrocytes [RBC - Red Blood Cells]

-Leukocytes [WBC – White Blood Cells]

-Platelets

blood cells cont
BLOOD [CELLS] cont.
  • RBCs have membrane and contain hemoglobin that transport O2 in the blood.
  • WBCs work for defense of body, and have immune system.
  • Platelets play important role in blood clotting [Hemostasis].
blood4
BLOOD
  • What is Hematocrit or Packed Cell Volume [PCV]?
  • It is ratio of cells [RBC, WBC, Platelet] to the plasma.
  • PCV - 45% [40 to 47%]

Plasma - 55%.

blood5
BLOOD
  • Important Information
  • Blood represents about 8% of body weight.
  • Average volume of blood

In women – 5 liters

In men – 5.5 liters

  • pH of Blood – 7.4 [slightly alkaline]
  • Blood specific gravity 1.055
  • Blood viscosity is two and half times that of water.
plasma
PLASMA

We will discuss PLASMA:

  • What is PLASMA ?
  • It is fluid portion of blood, straw colored.
  • Composition of Plasma:

- water – 90%

- inorganic constituents – 1%

E.g. Electrolytes – Na+, Cl-, K+, HCO3-,Ca2+

They play role in membrane excitability.

composition of plasma cont
COMPOSITION OF PLASMA [cont.]
  • Organic constituents

- Plasma protein – 6 – 8%

- Other organic substances present e.g. Glucose, amino acids, lipids and vitamins.

  • Waste products – urea, creatinine, bilirubin.
  • Dissolved gases – O2 and CO2
  • Hormones
serum
SERUM
  • WHAT IS SERUM ?
  • Serum has same composition as Plasma except that its fibrinogen and other clotting factors have been removed.
  • Plasma clots on the standing but serum does not clot.
plasma protein
PLASMA PROTEIN
  • Plasma Protein are

1. Albumin 3.5 – 5 g/dl

2. Globulin 2.5 g/dl

3. Fibrinogen 0.3 g/dl

  • Plasma Protein can not pass through capillary pores, therefore, they have colloid osmotic pressure [Oncotic pressure] of 25 mmHg which holds the water inside and maintains plasma volume.
plasma protein functions
PLASMA PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
  • Specific function of each protein:
  • Albumin 3.5 – 5 g/dl, most abundant

- molecular weight 69000

- half life 20 days

- synthesized in liver

- Plasma osmotic pressure is mainly due to

albumin (80-90%).

plasma protein functions1
PLASMA PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
  • Albumin [cont]

- Albumin binds to many substances e.g. bilirubin, bile salts, penicillin for transport in the plasma.

plasma protein functions2
PLASMA PROTEIN FUNCTIONS

2. Globulins – molecular weight 156,000

- 3 subclasses

(i). Alpha [α]

(ii). Beta [β]

(iii) Gamma [γ]

Function of Alpha & Beta Globulins

  • They carry substances like thyroid hormones, cholesterol, iron, lipids, insulin, vitamins A, D, K.
  • Many blood clotting factors are alpha or beta globulin.
  • Angiotensinogin is alpha globulin.
plasma protein functions3
PLASMA PROTEIN FUNCTIONS

Gamma Globulin – Immunoglobulin [Ig]

  • Gamma Globulins are antibodies and play important role in body defense mechanism.
  • Immunoglobulin [Ig] are

- IgG – work for defense of body - IgM – work for defense of body

- IgA – present in secretion e.g. saliva, breast milk, intestinal secretion

- IgD – recognize antigen

- IgE – play role in allergic reaction

plasma protein1
PLASMA PROTEIN

3. Fibrinogen

- molecular weight 400,000

- Fibrinogen play key factor in blood clotting.

  • Important Note

- Plasma protein – Albumin, Fibrinogen, Alpha, and Beta Globulin are synthesized in liver, but gamma globulin are produced by plasma cell and

B- lymphocytes.

applied
APPLIED
  • Hypoproteinemia

Causes

- less protein intake

- protein loss in kidney

- liver disease, decrease synthesis of protein

- intestinal disease, less absorption of protein

- in hypoproteinemia, there is decreased plasma osmotic pressure, therefore, there is Edema [collection of fluid in subcutaneous tissue].

what you should know from this lecture
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW FROM THIS LECTURE ?
  • Composition & Functions of Blood
  • What is Hematocrit or PCV ?
  • Composition & Functions of Plasma
  • Difference between Blood, Plasma, and Serum
  • Normal Blood Volume, Plasma Volume, Plasma Osmotic Pressure
  • Plasma Protein & their Functions
  • Hypoproteinemia and its causes, Edema
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