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THE BLOOD. The 3 Main Functions of Blood :. Transportation Protection Regulation Blood is a connective tissue in liquid form Greatest benefit from homeostasis Continuous flow of blood thru 60,000 miles of blood vessels . TRANSPORTATION :. Blood moves thru body where cells receive:

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the 3 main functions of blood
The 3 Main Functions of Blood:
  • Transportation
  • Protection
  • Regulation
  • Blood is a connective tissue in liquid form
  • Greatest benefit from homeostasis
    • Continuous flow of blood thru 60,000 miles of blood vessels
transportation
TRANSPORTATION:
  • Blood moves thru body where cells receive:
    • Nutrients from digestive organs
    • Oxygen from lungs
    • Hormones secreted from endocrine gland
  • Cells give blood waste
      • (CO2, urea & uric acid) & their secretions
protection
Protection:
  • From harmful microorganism & their toxins
    • Through Phagocytic white blood cells
    • Specialized proteins called Antibodies
  • Against fluid loss after an injury by clotting
regulation
Regulation:
  • Regulates acid-base balance of the body fluids
    • By way of buffers
      • Neutralize potential harmful effects of:
        • too much CO2
        • lactic acid
        • other compounds
  • Body temp. by cooling or heating parts of body
  • Controlled by Hypothalamus
  • Controls volume of blood flow to diff. areas of body

Figure

This figure highlights some of the major acute (short-term) effects on the body during exercise.

color
COLOR
  • RED COLOR =
    • HEMOGLOBIN (PIGMENT PROTEIN)
  • Arterial blood the O2 molecules are chemically bound to hemoglobin
    • Crimson-red color
  • Venous blood O2molecules are not as prevalent & blood=
    • Dark red color w/a slightly bluish tint
  • SEEN THROUGH SKIN VEINS LOOK GREENISH- BLUE but it is NOT GREEN OR BLUE
volume
VOLUME
  • 8% OF BODY WEIGHT
    • Most in vessels--rest in heart
  • Does not vary much from day to day or year to year
  • Avg. Male =
    • 5-6 liters of blood
  • Avg. Female =
    • 4-5 liters of blood
  • Difference due to avg body weight not sex

Apx. 8 pints

slide9
Blood is thicker, denser, & more adhesive than H2O
    • Due to formed elements (red blood cells)
  • Causes blood to flow 5x slower than H2O
  • Resistance to flow = viscosity
  • Therefore blood is a viscous substance b/c it resists flow more than water

Figure

The shear rate dependence of normal human blood viscoelasticity at 2 Hz and 22 °C.

slide10

pH

  • Slightly alkaline (aka: basic)
  • pH = 7.35-7.45
  • Range stays small despite change in:
      • Diet
      • Cell secretions
      • Metabolic rateby buffering systems that remove H+ ions
  • If buffers fail:
      • BLOOD TOO ACIDIC (pH below 6.0)
        • Body cells stop functioning
        • No homeostasis = Acidosis
    • Too little acid in blood = Alkalosis (a lot less common)
  • Possible complications = Arrhythmias, Coma, Electrolyte imbalance (such as hypokalemia)
leukocytes
Leukocytes
  • Less than 1% of total blood volume
  • 5000 TO 10,000 in cubic mm
  • Any change in number…
    • High or low indicates a disease
types
Types:
  • All contain a nucleus
    • (unlike the RBC’s)
  • Can wander outside the Circ. System- Diapedesis
  • WBC cells differ in:
    • Nature of cytoplasm
    • Size
    • Shape of nucleus
  • Response to different staining techniques
  • Divided into 2 groups by cytoplasm differences:
    • Granulocytes
    • Agranulocytes

STOP HERE

granulocytes
Granulocytes
  • Cytoplasm contains highly visible pebble-like objects, known as granules
  • Twice the size of RBC’s
  • They contain a nucleus that is split into sections called lobes
  • Produced in red marrow
slide16
Three types:
    • Eosinophils
    • Neutrophils
    • Basophils
  • Names come from the type of stain that brings out their distinguishing features→
    • Neutral
    • Eosin
    • Basic
neutrophil
Neutrophil:
  • Most abundant = granulocyte
  • Stain pink in a neutral stain
  • Nucleus contains: 2 to 5 lobes→
    • Interconnected by thin bridges
  • Make up about 60% of all WBC’s in a normal blood sample
eosinophils
Eosinophils:
  • 1 to 4% of WBC’s in a normal blood sample
  • Granules stain red in an acid stain that contains a dye known as eosin
  • Nucleus = 2 lobes
slide19
Eosinophils are:
    • Not very mobile
    • Not very active
    • Can phagocytize certain foreign particles produced by allergic reactions →
      • Invading parasites
      • Pollen grains
      • Mold spores
basophils
Basophils:
  • Most rare→0.5% or less of WBC’s in blood
  • Large granules that stain blue in basic stain
  • Nucleus is often bent into an s-shape with 2 lobes
slide21
Basophils & Mast cells produce a substance called = histamine
    • causes swelling or inflammation
  • Swelling tells other WBC’s where to find the site of infection

***Mast cells reside in tissues in the body, and basophils are in the blood stream.

http://link.brightcove.com/services/link/bcpid236059233/bctid347806799

agranulocytes
Agranulocytes:
  • Contain very small amount of cytoplasmic granules
  • 2 types of cells →
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  • Both produced in red bone marrow
  • Also produced by organs of lymphatic system →
    • Lymph nodes
    • Spleen
    • Thalamus
monocyte
Monocyte:
  • Largest cells in blood
  • 3x larger than RBC’s
  • 2x larger than granulocytes
  • Nucleus can be round, oval, or lobed
  • Often occupies most of the cell volume
  • 3 to 8% of WBC’s in a blood sample
lymphocyte
Lymphocyte:
  • Same size as the RBC = the smallest WBC
  • Nucleus is round and large →
    • Takes up almost all of cell volume
  • 25-33% of WBC’s in a blood sample
function
Function:
  • Protection from disease
  • Move out of vessels = diapedesis
  • Once in the intestinal fluid they act like amoeba, extending streams of cytoplasmic arms called = pseudopodia
  • To find infection they sense chemicals released by invading microorganisms & damages cells
slide26
Once found the WBC traps the microorganism and engulfs it = phagocytosis
  • The primary cells used for phagocytosis ar the neutrophils & monocytes
  • Neutrophils are mobile & usually arrive 1st at site of infection
  • Monocytes are very active too, large size allows for phagocytizing whole cells & large # of bacteria
slide27
When more WBC’s arrive at the site of infection they form a collection of living—dead—broken cells and plasma = pus
  • Not only phagocytosis to combat disease:
  • Highly specific proteinsproduced by the lymphocytes =
    • Antibodies →
      • These act against foreign particles and toxins that enter body
  • Production of antibodies = immunity

http://gu.com/p/2kntv

platelets
Platelets:
  • Aka → Thrombocytes
  • Formed elements that are fragments of complex cells
  • During development in red bone marrow, they are formed when a large precursor cell breaks apart
  • In small fragments platelets are released into blood stream for circulation
slide29
Larger fragments are broken down further to form more platelets
  • Each platelet contains:
    • Cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane
    • No nucleus but most organelles found in cytoplasm
  • 1/10 the size of a RBC
  • Shape = round or oval disk
slide30
150,000 to 360,000 platelets per cubic mm in normal blood sample = less numerous than RBC
  • Prevention of fluid loss
  • Initiate the formation of blood clots
  • This plugs up the breaks in the blood vessel wall after an injury