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School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Year 3 Team Training Day 2

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  1. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Year 3 Team Training Day 2 Donna Morelli Cynthia Zingler Education Specialists Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports Trainers dmorelli@crec.orgczingler@crec.org www.pbis.org www.cber.org

  2. Sharing • Celebrations – Tier 1 and Tier 2 • Roadblocks – Tier 1 and Tier 2 • Questions/Concerns

  3. Utilizing the PBIS framework • Addressing the needs of ALL students within the school • Efficient and effective evidence based practices • Data for decision making • Creating a system for sustainability

  4. Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES 15 Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

  5. PURPOSE Provide overview of defining features of function-based approach to addressing behavior. • FBA • Developing a hypothesis

  6. Objectives for Today • Determine appropriate data gathering tools • Determine student motivation (function) • Establish a hypothesis statement that will inform a behavioral intervention plan (BIP)

  7. Indicators of a Quality Decision-Making Process • Identify the focus area • Determine the desired outcome • Select strategies/interventions • Develop plan • Implement and Monitor • Evaluate student progress & the plan

  8. What Data Do We Use? Looking at Numbers • Quantitative data (Numbers) • Defining the gap between expectations and current performance • Monitoring the progress and growth Move Beyond Numbers • Qualitative data (Descriptions) • Developing a focus area or the cause of a concern • Defining the context • Examining the implications of decisions

  9. Behavior Clearly define the behavior • Observable (can be seen) • Measurable (can be counted) • Specific (clear terms, not vague, no room for a judgment call) • Observe at least 3 times • Different settings • Different times • Different activities

  10. Frequency Calling out to teacher and or classmates without raising his hand occurred 8 times within a 20 minute observation; Greatest difficulty was during seat work.

  11. Data Collection Strategies • Masking Tape • Pennies (in pocket)/Paperclips • Golf Counter • Post-It Notes • Mailing Labels • Index Card on Desk

  12. Duration Average duration of behavior: 18/30 minutes = 60% of the time; 50% of which was during seat work.

  13. Time to Practice Watch the video for instances where Suzanne causes pain to the cat

  14. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=324WVWxjJng

  15. Time to Practice • Compare your observations with your shoulder partner; • Share with another pair of partners.

  16. The ABCs of FBAs

  17. Simple FBA • Brief teacher interview • Define problem behavior and identify antecedents and consequences • Appropriate when… • Behavior is not severe or complex • High level of confidence in “ABC’s” and hypothesized function • Child is not in danger of suspension, expulsion or an alternative placement • Does not meet IDEA requirements Crone & Horner, 2003

  18. Full FBA • Parent, additional teacher and child interviews; review of records; and direct observations in at least two settings • Appropriate when… • Behavior is complex, severe or at-risk • If the child’s behavior is not severe but there is a lack of confidence in the initial hypothesized function, prior interventions unsuccessful • Meets IDEA ’04 requirements Crone & Horner, 2003

  19. The ABCs of Behavior • Antecedents • Events before the behavior • Behavior • Observable, measurable, specific • Consequences • Event after the behavior

  20. Antecedent Behavior Consequence The Three Term Contingency

  21. The Three Term Contingency • Antecedent: • Behavior: • Consequence: Any “ stimulus that precedes a behavior” “Any observable and measurable act of an individual (also called a response).” “Any stimulus presented contingent on a particular response” Alberto & Troutman (2006)

  22. Reinforcement vs Punishment • Reinforcement: when a consequence of a behavior functions to increase the likelihoodof future occurrences of that behavior • Punishment: when a consequence of a behavior functions to decrease the likelihoodof future occurrences of that behavior

  23. Dec. ( )* Inc. ( )* Reinforcement and Punishment Take (-) Give (+) Action Effect Positive Negative Reinforcement Reinforcement Positive Negative Punishment Punishment * Future probability of behavior

  24. “School’s not for kids!” When Jake is presented with school work, he whines, “Schools not for kids!” In the past, Jake’s teacher gets frustrated and takes his work away. In the future, Jake continues to whine whenever he is presented with work.

  25. Breakdown of Example: Jake When Jake is presented with school work Antecedent(SD): Behavior(s): Consequence: Action(+ or - ): Effect( or ): So it is: he whines, “Schools not for kids!” Jake’s teacher…takes his work away Jake’s teacher…takes his work away In the future, Jake continues to whine Negative reinforcement

  26. “Brian” During lunch with peers, Brian made a derogatory comment toward one of his peers. The peer punched him. In the future, Brian was less likely to make derogatory comments (at least toward that peer).

  27. Breakdown of Example: Brian Antecedent(SD): Behavior(s): Consequence: Action(+ or -): Effect( or ): So it is: During lunch with peers Brian made a derogatory comment The peer punched him Peer “gave” a punch less likely to make a derogatory comments Positive punishment

  28. “Rachel” During math class lectures, Rachel uses a straw and her math notebook to make spitballs and shoots them at Susan. Peers laugh. Rachel begins to shoot spitballs in other classes during lectures.

  29. Breakdown of Example: Rachel Antecedent(SD): Behavior(s): Consequence: Action(+ or -): Effect( or ): So it is: During classroom lectures Rachel shoots spitballs Peers laugh Peer “gave” social attention More likely to shoot spitballs during lectures Positive reinforcement

  30. Direct Assessments—ABC Chart What could have been done differently? How do you help a staff member change their behavior?

  31. Fast and Slow Triggers Slow Triggers • Setting events • Environmental conditions • Over time Fast Triggers • Antecedents • Immediately before behavior Slower triggers: disabilities, trauma reactions, fatigue, poor nutrition Medical conditions/reasons, family stressors Pennsylvania Department of Education, Initial Line of Inquiry

  32. Student’s Strengths Describe what the student does well (interests, strengths, learning styles). What does the student contribute to his environment? When does he exhibit appropriate behaviors?

  33. Antecedents: The Student’s Own Behavior • How does the student evidence her growing frustration? • What does the student DO immediately before the interfering behavior? • What are the signs or clues the student gives?

  34. FBA Process • Strengths • Behavior • Antecedents • Consequences

  35. A Sample Protocol for Examining Behavior

  36. Indicators of a Quality Decision-Making Process • Identify the focus area • Determine the desired outcome • Select strategies/interventions • Develop plan • Implement and Monitor • Evaluate student progress & the plan

  37. Behavior is Changeable Make the behavior…… Irrelevant Inefficient Ineffective

  38. Using Assessment to Develop an Hypothesis

  39. Data Sources • Direct measures • CBA (CRT and CBM) • Indirect measures • Rubrics, goal attainment scaling, self- monitoring • Authentic measures of performance • conversation summaries • portfolios What data sources did you bring for your case study? Etscheidt, 2006

  40. Develop an Hypothesis • Develop an hypothesis to define a central focus • Examines the relationship among the context variables • Determines why this is

  41. Make a Statement About the Behavior Three parts include: When {antecedent/trigger} occurs, (When Jeff is given an independent writing assignment, ) The {student(s)} do/does {behavior of concern}, (he rips his paper up and throws it on the floor) In order to {perceived function}. (in order to escape the writing task.) *Develop a hypothesis statement for the student in your case study. Pennsylvania Department of Education, Initial Line of Inquiry

  42. So What Do We Want to Happen? • The desired outcome is developed from changing the currently reality to a new one. • Take a look at your hypothesis. *What is it that you want to happen instead?

  43. Writing a Desired Outcome • Clearly define the outcome • Observable (can be seen) • Measurable (can be counted) • Specific (clear terms, no room for a judgment call) • May sometimes require smaller benchmarks • When {condition} occurs, {the student} will {desired outcome} from {baseline} to {target} by {timeline}. * Write your desired outcome.

  44. Missing Data?

  45. Action Plan • Find your missing data! • Complete your Hypothesis Statement and specify the root cause. • update assessment information