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Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports . Ed Sbardellati, Ph.D. Washington County Mental Health Sherri Rosenberg, M.A., BCBA Washington County Mental Health August 19, 2010. Training Overview. What Are ABA And PBS?

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introduction to applied behavior analysis and positive behavior supports

Introduction to Applied Behavior Analysis and Positive Behavior Supports

Ed Sbardellati, Ph.D.

Washington County Mental Health

Sherri Rosenberg, M.A., BCBA

Washington County Mental Health

August 19, 2010

training overview
Training Overview
  • What Are ABA And PBS?
  • A Framework for Understanding Human Behavior
  • Basic Elements of Effective Interventions
  • Functions of Behavior
  • Antecedent-Based Interventions
  • Consequence-Based Interventions
  • Skill Building
  • Data Collection

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

what is aba
What is ABA?
  • A discipline committed to the understanding and improvement of human behavior
  • Focuses on objectively defined, observable behaviors of social significance
  • Seeks to improve behavior while demonstrating reliability between applied interventions and the noted improvement

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

what is aba5
What is ABA?
  • “The science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree”

BAER, WOLF AND RISLEY (1968)

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

aba defined cont
ABA defined (cont.)
  • APPLIED
    • Refers to the social significance of the behavior (of immediate importance to the individual or society)
  • BEHAVIOR
    • Behavior is in need of improvement
    • Behavior must be observable and measurable

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

aba defined cont7
ABA defined (cont.)
  • ANALYSIS
    • Believability
    • Demonstrates a functional relationship between behavior and intervention
      • controls the occurrence and nonoccurrence of a behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

what is positive behavior support
What is Positive Behavior Support?
  • A set of research-based strategies used to increase quality of life and decrease problem behavior by teaching new skills and making changes in a person's environment

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

pbs combines
PBS combines
  • Valued Outcomes
  • Behavioral and Biomedical Science
  • Validated Procedures
  • Systems change to enhance quality of life and reduce problem behaviors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide11

Behavior

  • “is the movement of an organism or of its parts in a frame of reference provided by the organism or by various external objects or field”

(Cooper et al, 2008)

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

behavior
Behavior
  • Human Behavior
    • Behavior is LEARNED
    • Behavior is a function of the environment

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

assumptions of aba
Assumptions of ABA
  • BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED
    • B=(F)E
    • New behaviors can be taught
    • Old behaviors can be unlearned

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

assumptions of aba14
Assumptions of ABA
  • We change behavior by changing the ENVIRONMENT

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

behavior15
Behavior
  • Overt
    • An action that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior
      • Must pass the Dead Man’s Test

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

behavior16
Behavior
  • Covert
    • An action that can NOT be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behavior
    • Private events
  • ABA predominantly addresses overt behaviors
  • Cognitive-Behavior Modification addresses covert behaviors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide17

Key Terms & Concepts

Stimulus

  • An environmental event that can be detected by one of the senses
  • Is any condition, event, or change in the physical world

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide18

Key Terms and Concepts

Response

  • One instance or occurrence of a particular behavior
  • A specific instance of a particular behavior
  • Are the focus of observation and measurement in behavioral studies
  • Is the measurable unit of analysis in the science of behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide19

Stimulus Control

Stimulus Control

  • Increased probability that a behavior will occur in the presence of certain environmental conditions
    • If a principal yells…
    • If a police officer approaches…
    • If a telephone rings…

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide20

Consequence

  • EEffects only future behavior
  • RResults in an increase, decrease or no effect on behavior

The probability that similar responses will be emitted under future similar stimulus conditions

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slide21

Respondent Behavior

  • NNO LEARNING REQUIRED

It is a reflex

  • RRespond INVOLUNTARILY to certain stimuli

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slide23

Operant Behavior

Is VOLUNTARY

  • IInfluenced by the antecedents and consequences surrounding the behavior

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slide24

Operant Behavior

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slide25

Three Term Contingency

Reinforcement

Cue----------R----------C+

Reductive Procedures

Cue----------R----------C-

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slide26

Reinforcement

  • When a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions

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slide27

Reductive Consequence

  • When a stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide29

Complexity of Human Behavior

  • Huge range of behaviors
  • Competing contingencies
    • Go out on the town or Study for the exam?
  • Single event has multiple effects
    • Reduce behavior
    • Increase behavior
    • Escape
  • Response chains

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide30

Complexity of Human Behavior

Complexity of Controlling Variables

  • Environmental constructs are complex
  • Multiple causation
  • Setting events

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide31

Complexity of Human Behavior

Individual Differences

  • Different responses to the same environmental conditions
  • NO two people experience the world in the same way
    • Histories of reinforcement
  • Individual motor & sensory deficits

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reinforcer assessment
Reinforcer Assessment
  • Activity

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

basic elements of effective interventions
Basic Elements of Effective Interventions
  • PROACTIVE
    • Modify the environment
  • EDUCATIVE
    • Teach pro-social behaviors and social skills which are alternatives to challenging behaviors
  • FUNCTIONAL
    • Manage consequences of behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

why bother
Why Bother?
  • Strong theoretical and empirical support for behavioral procedures
    • 40+ years of research in behavior change with people behavioral and developmental disorders autism
  • Particularly in the areas of Functional Behavioral Assessment and positive approaches to behavior change

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide36
Why?
  • The use of the “Positive Behavioral Supports” model is becoming more and more widespread as reactive approaches have not proven uniformly successful

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

reactive approaches
Reactive Approaches

PUNISHMENT

  • May teach what not to do, but not what to do
  • May punish the child, but may not actually reduce the behavior in the natural environment

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

reactive approaches cont
Reactive Approaches (cont.)

EXCLUSION

  • May address an immediate need, but reduce’s the child’s opportunity to learn how to successfully interact with the natural environment

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

so let s talk some more about positive approaches
So let’s talk some more about positive approaches

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

proactive
Proactive
  • Modifying the environment to reduce the probability that the challenging behaviors will occur
  • Requires assessment to identify the mismatch between the child and the environment
  • Can involve a myriad of possible interventions

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

may involve a variety of interventions
May Involve a VARIETY of Interventions
  • Changes in settings and situations in which the behavior occurs
  • Alter or eliminate setting events associated with challenging behaviors
  • Identify and address precursor behaviors associated with challenging behaviors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

proactive interventions cont
Proactive Interventions (cont.)
  • Make instructional or curricular changes
  • Establishing predictable routines or changing expectations
  • Increase opportunities for making choices, exerting personal control

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

skill building
Skill Building
  • Specifically teach behaviors and skills which are functional alternatives to challenging behaviors
  • Behaviors may be in the learner’s repertoire or may have to be shaped over time

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

functional
Functional
  • Developing management procedures which address the functions of behavior
  • Manage consequences such that pro-social behaviors are increased and challenging behaviors are reduced

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

focus on behavior
Focus On Behavior
  • We need to clearly define the behavior(s) we want to increase or decrease
  • Identify the pro-social skill(s) we want to teach as a replacement behavior(s)
  • Include these pro-social skills or behaviors in the learner’s individualized behavior change plan

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

focus on behavior cont
Focus on Behavior (cont.)
  • Focus procedures (like a laser beam) on the behaviors we want to increase and decrease
  • Carry out procedures consistently over time and across staff

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focus on behavior cont47
Focus on Behavior (cont.)
  • Evaluate effects of procedures on chosen behaviors
    • Daily data collection
  • Revise procedures as necessary

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functions of behavior
Functions of Behavior
  • A note on behavior
  • Abruscato’s Second Law

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

a note on behavior
A Note on Behavior
  • Our behavior is related to and governed by its context
  • Can be interpreted as being functional, often communicative, purposeful and meaningful for the person
  • Can be affected by internal events
    • physiological conditions and emotional states

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

a note on behavior cont
A Note on Behavior (cont.)
  • Is affected by factors outside the immediate context, including relationships, activity patterns and lifestyle issues
  • Behavior changes as people mature and develop new competencies

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

abruscato s second law
Abruscato’s SECOND LAW

“All behavior is rationale to

the person doing it.”

Abruscato (1973)

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functions of behavior53
Functions of Behavior
  • FUNCTION
    • The reason why problematic behavior continues to occur
  • SOCIAL FUNCTION
    • Environmental events that maintain behavior
  • Treatment is based upon identified function, not on topography

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

events which maintain behavior
Events Which Maintain Behavior
  • Positive Reinforcement
    • Gaining social attention, preferred items or activities
  • Negative Reinforcement
    • An escape or avoidance function
  • Automatic Reinforcement
    • Not socially mediated

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

functions of behavior55
Functions of Behavior
  • Demand (Avoidance/Escape)
  • Attention (Positive and/or Negative)
  • Tangible (Access to HPA’S/Rewards)
  • Automatic Reinforcement (Alone)
  • Multiple Factors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

demand avoid or escape
Demand (Avoid or Escape)
  • Activities
  • Interactions
  • People
  • Cues or directions
  • Environmental stressors, events and situations we find aversive

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

obtain attention from others
Obtain Attention from Others
  • Positive Attention
  • Negative Attention

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

obtain activity or object
Toy

Computer

Swings

Go outside

Etc.

Obtain Activity or Object

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automatic self reinforcement
Automatic (Self-Reinforcement)
  • Behaviors not mediated by the environment

Examples:

  • Twirling hair
  • Spinning
  • Vocalizations (“video talk”)

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

functions may come in pairs
Functions May Come In Pairs
  • Examples
    • Avoid and get attention
    • Avoid and obtain preferred activity

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

multiple functions
Multiple Functions
  • Some behaviors may serve multiple functions to the individual
    • Self-injurious behavior
    • Noncompliance

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

let s play

LET’S PLAY!

“Name That Function”

example 1
Example 1
  • Student really dislikes math; he feels he is not “good at it”
  • Math lesson begins
  • Student swears at teacher
  • Student is sent out of the room

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

example 2
Example 2
  • Client often vocalizes Disney songs when not engaged
  • Client is in direct 1:1 instruction
  • Client vocalizes songs to self which makes it difficult for his instructor to obtain his attention and cue responding

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

example 3
Example 3
  • Student always gets disruptive when spelling is cued
    • makes loud noises, gets out of seat, argues with the teacher
  • Student gets to use computer during spelling

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

example 4
Example 4
  • Student likes to be the center of attention
  • Student asks an off task, but somewhat interesting, question
  • Teacher has a conversation with the student about the question

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

example 5
Example 5
  • Student enters room when an activity was in progress
  • Student runs around the room, yells and touches other student
  • Teacher tries to redirect the student
  • Other student grabs the student and they wrestle
  • Student is physically removed from the room

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

name that function

“Name That Function”

Home & Community Edition

example 169
Example 1
  • Dad leaves for work every morning at 7:30
  • Child cries
    • loud and long
  • Dad remains and consoles child, finally leaves
  • Mom tries to engage child in drawing
    • preferred activity

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example 270
Example 2
  • Child is playing with preferred toy
  • Other child starts to play with toy
  • First child slaps second child
  • Second child cries and leaves
  • Adult hugs first child

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

example 371
Example 3
  • Child is sitting on the floor and raises hands and says “up”
  • Adult doesn’t notice and continues conversation
  • Child bangs head on floor
  • Adult picks up child

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

example 472
Example 4
  • Child is playing on floor, it is time to go to school
  • Parent approaches with clothing
  • Child cries and runs away
  • Parent stands with clothing and feels like crying

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

example 573
Example 5
  • Time to get ready for bed
  • Dad asks child to go to the bathroom to brush teeth
  • Child cries and runs away
  • Dad asks mom to take over

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

example 6
Example 6
  • Child wakes up in the middle of the night
  • Child comes to parents’ bed and climbs in
  • Parents make room and hope everyone gets some sleep

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

functions of behavior75
Functions of Behavior
  • Demand
    • Avoidance/escape
  • Attention
    • Positive and/or negative
  • Tangible
    • Access to HPAs/rewards
  • Automatic reinforcement
    • Alone
  • Multiple factors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide78

Antecedent Control Measures

  • Eliminate the cue for the problem behavior
  • Provide cues for alternative prosocial behavior
  • Reduce the motivation for the reinforcer maintaining the challenging behavior
  • Increase the motivation for the reinforcer maintaining the alternative, more desireable behavior
  • Increase the response effort for the problem behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide79

Antecedent Control Measures

  • Decrease response effort for alternative behavior
  • Modify the environment to increase the consistency and predictability of expectations
  • Schedules
  • Maximize opportunities for choice and control
  • Clear, concise expectations
  • Modify curriculum/expectations to maximize independent success

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

antecedent techniques
Antecedent Techniques

Cueing Procedures

  • Obtain attention first
  • State cue/direction using only a few words known to be within client’s repertoire
  • Wait for client to respond-- avoid repetitive verbal cues
  • Monitor cooperation
  • Praise/reinforce cooperation

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

antecedent techniques81
Antecedent Techniques

Visual Prompts

  • Daily picture/icon/written schedule
  • Cue cards (portable/stationary)
      • In advance of transitions
      • In advance of novel situations
      • Advance review of expectations, consequences

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

antecedent techniques82
Antecedent Techniques

Advance Verbal Cues/Rehearsal

  • With or without visual prompts
  • Examples
    • Novel activities
    • Difficult social interactions
    • Ending a preferred activity
    • Transitions
    • Where, what, reinforcement

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

antecedent techniques83
Antecedent Techniques

Interruption

  • As response to low level challenging behaviors or precursors
    • Interrupt
    • Redirect
    • Reinforce

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

self relaxation
Self-Relaxation
  • Implement in regular training, at precursor level and/or after an incident.
  • Some “portable” techniques
    • Walking quietly
    • Deep breathing (diaphragmatic breathing)
    • Muscle tension and relaxation exercises
    • Attention focusing exercises

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

other proactive techniques to consider
Other Proactive Techniques to Consider
  • Remove or modify a problem event
  • Intersperse easy or pleasant activities with more difficult or unpleasant activities
  • Reduce the impact of negative events
    • Allow temporary avoidance /reduce demands
  • Add events that promote appropriate behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

a note on consequences
A Note On Consequences
  • Natural consequences
  • Logical consequences
  • Contrived consequences

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

why use reinforcement
Why Use Reinforcement?
  • To build prosocial behavior
  • To reduce challenging behaviors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

underlying assumptions
Underlying Assumptions
  • Behavior is learned
    • New behaviors can be taught
    • Old behaviors can be “unlearned”

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

underlying assumptions91
Underlying Assumptions
  • Consequences are defined by their effect upon behavior
  • We change behavior by changing the environment

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

reinforcement
Reinforcement
  • A behavior is followed by an event (consequence) which serves to strengthen the behavior
  • Increases the probability of the behavior occurring again

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

reinforcement93
Reinforcement

Types of Reinforcement

  • Positive reinforcement
    • Obtain a reward
  • Negative reinforcement
    • Avoid an aversive event

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

types of reinforcers
Social

Activity

Token/Symbolic

Tangible

Edible/Drink

Premack Principle

Grandma’s Rule

Types of Reinforcers

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

increasing the effectiveness of reinforcement
Increasing the Effectiveness of Reinforcement
  • Contingency
  • Immediacy
  • Power
  • Schedule or Timing of Reinforcement
  • Deprivation vs. Satiation

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

building behavioral momentum
Building Behavioral Momentum

“Layering” Of Reinforcement

  • Immediately
  • Throughout The Day
  • End Of Day
  • Throughout The Week

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

a simple example
A Simple Example
  • Behavior=Talking out in class
  • Present Reinforcer=Attention
  • Prosocial Skills=Raising hand to obtain attention

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

a simple example cont
A Simple Example (cont.)
  • Reinforcement
    • Immediate
      • Call on child when hand is raised, specific praise
    • Throughout the day
      • Stars on chart for raising hand to get attention or
      • Sticker on chart after classes in which hand raising happens, specific praise

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

a simple example cont99
A Simple Example (cont.)
  • Reinforcement (cont.)
    • Throughout/End of day
      • Activity reward/privilege for earning a specific number of stars
    • End of week
      • Bigger activity reward for having a “good week”

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

building behavior
Building Behavior

Differential Reinforcement

  • Consistently reinforce alternative or incompatible behaviors while withholding reinforcement for problematic behaviors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

differential reinforcement
Differential Reinforcement

Two Simultaneous Procedures

  • Reinforcement of prosocial behavior
  • Withholding of reinforcement for challenging behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide102

Differential Reinforcement

As a Natural Process of Teaching

  • Consistently reinforce (attend to) prosocial behavior while withholding reinforcement for problematic behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

omission training dro
Omission Training (DRO)
  • Omission Training is a reductive technique wherein we reinforce the absence of a targeted behavior at the end of a specified interval of time
  • “First Line of Defense” against aggressive behaviors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

systematic reinforcement of alternative or incompatible behaviors
Systematic Reinforcement of Alternative or Incompatible Behaviors

DRA/DRI

  • A procedure in which one or more specified desirable behaviors, which are alternative or incompatible with the targeted behavior (maladaptive behavior) are systematically reinforced
  • The desired effect is to increase these alternative or incompatible behaviors while the problematic behaviors will reduce

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

behavioral checklists
Behavioral Checklists
  • A useful procedure to focus feedback on targeted behaviors and skills to increase
  • Create a grid or checklist
    • Interval based
      • 5 minutes to the end of an activity

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

james really cool chart
James’ Really Cool Chart 

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

skills to address
Skills To Address
  • Identify the Behaviors/Skills to be taught or increased
    • Usually 1-3 behaviors/skills based upon the learner’s age and/or developmental level

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

when to provide feedback
When To Provide Feedback?
  • Determine when the checklist will be completed
    • More feedback is usually better than less feedback
    • Provide feedback at certain times of day and/or
    • Provide feedback when certain tasks or activities are completed

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

symbols praise
Symbols/Praise
  • Determine what symbols/words will be used to provide feedback
    • Age appropriateness
    • Learner’s choice
  • Always praise the learner when s/he earns positive feedback
    • Be specific and enthusiastic

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

be consistent
Be Consistent
  • In which behaviors/skills we are reinforcing
  • In providing reinforcement regularly across the day
    • Predetermined schedule

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

back up reinforcers
Back Up Reinforcers
  • Negotiate the reinforcers the learner will earn for being successful
    • Privileges/ “freedom”
    • Preferred activities
    • Tangible items

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

set reasonable objectives
Set Reasonable Objectives
  • Start at a lower level to ensure success
  • Slowly raise the expectation as the learner progresses

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

cash in frequently
“Cash In” Frequently
  • At least daily for older learners
  • Multiple times per day for younger learners

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

delayed reinforcers
Delayed Reinforcers
  • Be sure to include delayed reinforcers for improved behavior over time
    • End of day
    • Weekly or Bi-weekly

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

evaluation
Evaluation
  • Save behavioral checklists for subsequent evaluation
    • “Item” and “error” analysis
    • Adjusting the criterion for reinforcement
    • Fading the checklist

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

reductive procedures
Reductive Procedures
  • Extinction
  • Response Cost
  • Time Out from Positive Reinforcement

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

extinction
Extinction
  • Contingent removal of reinforcement leading to the nonoccurrence of the behavior
  • A necessary component of behavioral treatment

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

extinction cont
Extinction (cont.)
  • Extinction Burst
    • Not a conscious process
    • May include novel or emotional behaviors
  • Spontaneous Recovery

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

response cost
Response Cost
  • A reductive consequence that involves a loss of a specific reward or a specific amount of a reward

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

increasing the effectiveness of response cost
Increasing the Effectiveness of Response Cost
  • Must be a predictable reinforcement system
  • Identify (in advance) the behaviors which will result in the loss of reinforcement
  • Identify (in advance) the reinforcers or amount of reinforcement which will be lost

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

response cost cont
Response Cost (cont.)
  • Provide no more than one warning
  • Reduce conversation when using response cost
  • Do not escalate consequences or get involved in an argument with the learner

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response cost cont123
Response Cost (cont.)
  • Do not remove reinforcers until they have been earned
  • If using points or tokens-never go below “zero”
  • Be consistent
    • over time
    • across settings
    • across adults

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

time out from positive reinforcement
Time Out From Positive Reinforcement

First Question

  • Is it?
    • Time away from positive reinforcement or
    • Escape from the activity

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

time out from positive reinforcement cont
Time Out From Positive Reinforcement (cont.)

Second Question

  • Is there a better way to manage this behavior?

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

time out
Time Out
  • Contingent loss of access to reinforcement
  • Should result in a decrease in the behavior which led to time out

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

types of time out from positive reinforcement
Types of Time Out From Positive Reinforcement
  • Observational
  • Exclusionary
  • Seclusionary

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

important aspects of time out
Important Aspects Of Time Out
  • Discrepancy between “time in” in the natural setting and “time out” setting
    • The “time in” environment must be more reinforcing
    • Consider environmental enrichment or increased reinforcement

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

time out cont
Time Out (cont.)
  • Time out works best when
    • We focus upon one behavior
    • It is consistently used
    • No attention or other reinforcement is provided in time out

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

time out cont130
Time Out (cont.)
  • We assure that time out is appropriate for the learner’s age or developmental level and addresses the identified function of the behavior
  • We have a consistent “exit criterion”
    • Learner learns what s/he must do to leave time out

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

time out cont131
Time Out (cont.)
  • Consider teaching self-relaxation/self-calming as part of the exit criterion

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

time out room disadvantages
TIME OUT ROOM: DISADVANTAGES

STUDENT MAY PHYSICALLY RESIST MOVING TO THE TIME OUT ROOM

ELIMINATES THE STUDENT’S ACCESS TO ONGOING INSTRUCTION

STUDENT MAY ENGAGE IN BEHAVIORS WHICH ARE UNSAFE IN TIME OUT (E.G., SIB) OR ARE REINFORCING (SELF-STIMULATION) OR NOVEL, MORE ESCALATED BEHAVIORS

SOCIAL STIGMA

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

before you start
Before you start…
  • Ask two questions
    • What am I going to teach?
    • How am I going to teach it?

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

fair pair rule
Fair Pair Rule
  • For every behavior identified for reduction, a functional replacement behavior must be taught

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

what to teach
What to Teach?
  • Activity
    • Five behaviors for group activities
      • Aggression maintained by obtaining reinforcement
      • Work refusal maintained by escape and attention
      • Noncompliance with directions maintained by escape
      • Interrupting maintained by attention
      • Bolting maintained by escape

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

some alternative skills to teach
On Task

Following class routine

Work completion

Making eye contact

Following directions

Gentle hands

Polite words

Self-calming

Taking good time-outs

Friendship skills

Complementing others

Greeting others

Asking for help

Manding

Personal space/boundaries

Specific problem solving skills

Some Alternative Skills To Teach

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

activity selecting alternative behaviors
ACTIVITY: Selecting Alternative Behaviors
  • Organize groups
  • Assign behaviors to groups
  • Find a volunteer with real life example
  • Discuss behavior and context
  • Identify alternative skills to teach

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

how to teach
How to Teach
  • Considerations
    • Learning strengths & challenges, for example:
      • Language (receptive and expressive)
      • Imitation, Discrimination
      • Social Skills
    • Learning history
    • Reinforcement history
    • Topography of the skill
    • Functional context
  • HIGHLY INDIVIDUALIZED

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behavior change procedures
Behavior Change Procedures
  • Shaping
  • Task analysis
  • Chaining
  • Prompting
  • Prompt Fading
  • Evaluation of procedural effectiveness

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shaping
Shaping
  • The differential reinforcement of successive approximations of the same behavior
  • “Small step” learning
  • Success oriented
    • If unsuccessful, “it’s us, not them!”

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shaping142
Shaping
  • Define target behavior
  • Do you need to shape this behavior?
  • Identify the starting behavior
  • Determine the shaping steps
  • Choose reinforcers
  • Differentially reinforce each successive approximation
  • Move through the steps at a proper pace
    • Be prepared to move backwards

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

shaping of problem behavior
Shaping of Problem Behavior
  • Shifting topographies of behavior
  • Accidental shaping/Accidental reinforcement
  • How do we do this?
    • Prompting
    • Fading
    • Reinforcement
    • Extinction

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

shaping example
Shaping Example
  • For example, John never does his math homework. You would like to have him complete his homework on a daily basis.  You realize that if you wait for him to complete his homework before you reinforce him in some way, you may never (or infrequently) have the opportunity to administer a positive consequence.

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shaping example145
Shaping Example
  • John will write his name at the top of the worksheet.
  • John will complete one problem of his choice.
  • John will complete five problems of his choice.
  • John will complete either all the odd numbered problems or all the even numbered problems.
  • John will complete all problems except one.
  • John will complete all problems.

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

task analysis
Task Analysis
  • Breaking a complex skill or series of behaviors into smaller, teachable units
  • The product of a task analysis is a series of sequentially ordered steps or tasks

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

constructing a task analysis
Constructing a Task Analysis
  • The sequence of behaviors that one individual may use to perform skill may not be the same as another individual
  • Must be individualized according to
    • Age
    • Skill level
    • Prior experience
  • Some task analyses have a limited number of steps, but these steps may be broken down into subtasks

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constructing a task analysis148
Constructing a Task Analysis
  • Methods
    • Observe a competent individual perform the task
    • Consult with an expert or persons skilled in performing the task
    • Perform the behavior yourself
    • Systematic trial & error procedure
      • Initial task analysis is generated
      • Can refine it as you use it, if necessary

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

task analysis example
Brushing Teeth

Pick up the tooth brush

Wet the brush

Take the cap off the tube

Put paste on the brush

Brush the outside of the bottom row of teeth

Brush the outside of the top row of teeth

Brush the biting surface of the top row of teeth

Brush the biting surface of the bottom row of teeth

Brush the inside surface of the bottom row of teeth

Brush the inside surface of the top row of teeth

Brush the front surface of the bottom and top rows

Spit

Rinse the brush

Replace the brush in the holder

Grasp cup

Fill cup with water

Rinse teeth with water

Spit

Replace cup in holder

Wipe mouth

Screw cap back on tube

Task Analysis Example

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prompting
Prompting
  • Stimuli provided before or during a behavior to facilitate the performance of the behavior to access reinforcement

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

fading
Fading
  • Transferring stimulus control from the prompt to the SD
  • Gradual removal of prompts until the behaviors occurs in the presence of the SD without prompts

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

types of prompting
Types of Prompting
  • Response Prompts
    • Modeling/Imitation
    • Verbal Prompts
    • Gestural Prompts
    • Visual Prompts
    • Physical Prompts
      • Partial
      • Full

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

types of prompting153
Types of Prompting
  • Stimulus Prompts
    • Involves change in the stimulus
    • Positional prompts
  • Within stimulus prompts
    • Change the salience of the SD
      • Size, shape, color, intensity
      • “A” versus “B”
  • Extra stimulus prompt
    • Adding a stimulus

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide154

Prompt Delay/Time Delay

Time Delay Procedure

  • Present the Sd
  • Wait a certain number of seconds
  • If the correct response is not made, prompt the response
  • The time delay may be consistent or it may be faded over attempts/prompts/Sds

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

stimulus control
Stimulus Control
  • Training/teaching is not complete until we eliminate prompts and the behavior occurs at the right time and without assistance
  • Avoid prompt dependency

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prompt fading
Prompt Fading
  • Gradual removal of a response prompt over time until the use of the prompt is eliminated

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

prompting options
Prompting Options
  • Graduated Guidance
    • Guiding performance with hands
    • visual prompts
    • Verbal cues
  • Least to Most Method
    • Least amount of assistance each opportunity
  • Most to Least Method
    • Guide individual through entire sequence and gradually fade assistance

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

prompt fading158
Prompt Fading
  • Consequences to gradual changes in form, position, or intensity

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

prompt fading159
Prompt Fading
  • Prompt Delay/Time Delay
    • Constant Prompt Delay
    • Graduated/Progressive Prompt Delay
    • Be prepared to back up to previous steps

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

stimulus fading
Stimulus Fading
  • Removal of a stimulus prompt

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

using prompting and transfer of stimulus control
Using Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control
  • Determine “Can’t do.” vs. “Won’t do.”
    • Ability vs. Compliance
  • Choose the most appropriate prompting strategy
  • Get the learner’s attention
  • Present the SD
  • Prompt the correct response
  • Reinforce correct behavior
  • Transfer stimulus control

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

evaluation162
Evaluation
  • Before you end a program or terminate a protocol, ask yourself
    • How well have I taught the skill?
    • Your data should tell you!

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

putting it all together picking
Proactive/Preventative

Measures

Keep student well hydrated

Keep nails trimmed

Apply lotions several times per day

Behavior Management

If bx occurs, redirect

If bx occurs again, redirect

No points for interval

If bx occurs again, band-aid

Putting It All Together-Picking

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

putting it all together picking164
Instruction

Nail care

Visuals as a flip chart and checklist

Measures include independence & duration of task

Physical modification of care materials

Reinforcement

Point system for the occurrence of positive behaviors

Safe body

Following directions

Nice words

Doing your work

Putting It All Together-Picking

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

data collection166
Data Collection

Functional Behavioral Assessment

  • The process of obtaining information on events which precede and follow a behavior to determine which antecedents and consequences are reliably associated with the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

how to conduct an fba
How To Conduct An FBA
  • ABC Assessment
    • Descriptive Analysis (aka Direct Assessment)
  • Structured interview/checklists with parents and other caregivers (aka Indirect Assessment)
  • Functional Analysis
    • Experimental approach using analog conditions

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

fba cont
FBA (cont.)
  • ALWAYS conduct a functional assessment before developing a treatment plan for a child with seriously challenging behaviors

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide169
FBA

Descriptive Analysis

  • Descriptive Analysis refers to the process of obtaining direct and daily information concerning the context of challenging behavior
  • Usually done through “ABC” analysis

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

slide170

A-B-C (Operant Behavior)

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abc data
ABC Data
  • Antecedent
    • Events or interactions that happen before the behavior occurs: immediate or delayed/internal or external
  • Behavior
    • The behavior or sequence of behavior which occurred
  • Consequence
    • Events/interactions which happen after the behavior: what one gets and what one avoids

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

functional behavioral assessment the abc s
Antecedent

Immediate/Delayed

Medical

Physiological

Environmental

Interactional

Personal/Control

Functional Behavioral Assessment:The ABC’S

Behavior

What a person says or does

Consequence

Social Attention

Tangible

Activity

Escape

Avoidance

Combinations

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

information gained through a fba
Information Gained Through a FBA
  • Describe the problem behavior
  • Identify the antecedents to the behavior
  • Identify the consequences of the behavior
  • Consider alternative behaviors to teach
  • Develop hypotheses regarding the occurrence of the behavior
  • Identify potential reinforcers
  • Describe previous interventions used

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

data collection176
Data Collection

Direct And Daily Data

  • Clearly define the behavior we are measuring
  • Operational Definition
    • a clear description of the behavior which is written in simple, lay terms such that anyone can determine if the behavior did or did not occur

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

quantitative measures
Quantitative Measures
  • Frequency
    • Tallies of the total number of behaviors which occurred or the number of incidents of behavior which occurred in a specified time period

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quantitative measures178
Quantitative Measures
  • Duration
    • The elapsed time a behavior occurred

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

quantitative measures179
Quantitative Measures
  • Intensity
    • Descriptions or ratings of the severity of behavior
    • Can focus upon:
      • the number of behaviors within an incident and/or
      • the duration of the incident and/or
      • specific Likert-type scale or checklist

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

interval recording
Interval Recording
  • Coding the presence or absence of a specific behavior during a predetermined time period-i.e., whole, partial, momentary
  • May include frequencies of behavior within an interval or measures of the rate of the behavior

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

activities
Activities
  • How would you measure THIS behavior?
  • Video data collection

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

interobserver agreement ioa
Interobserver Agreement (IOA)
  • A measure of validity
  • Multiple calculations
  • This is TOTAL COUNT IOA

Total # of agreements

____________________________ X 100=%

Total # of agreements + disagreements

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

ioa example swearing
Observer 1

7 instances of swearing

Observer 2

9 instances of swearing

IOA Example-Swearing

# of Agreements=7

# of Disagreements=2

IOA

7 > 7 > .77 X 100=77%

7+2 9

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

graphic displays
Graphic Displays
  • Use of line, bar or pie graphs to describe the occurrence of a behavior over time or the proportions of behavior
  • Very helpful in evaluating the effectiveness of a treatment procedure and in determining when to change a procedure

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

ethics187
Ethics

Definition

  • The discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation
  • A theory or system of moral values
  • The principles of conduct governing and individual or group

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americans with disabilities act
Americans with Disabilities Act
  • “The Congress finds that physical or mental disabilities in no way diminish a person’s right to fully participate in society

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special education
Special Education

Basic Rights

  • Services are free to parents under the federal law Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and its regulations
  • Each state has special education laws and regulations that govern special educations services

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confidentiality
Confidentiality
  • FERPA
    • Family Educational and Rights to Privacy Act
    • Protects the privacy of student education records and applies to all schools that receive funds under an applicable program of the U.S. Department of Education

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confidentiality191
Confidentiality
  • HIPAA
    • The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule
    • The Privacy Rule provides federal protections for personal health information held by covered entities and gives patients an array of rights with respect to that information and permits the disclosure of personal health information needed for patient care and other important purposes

http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/index.html

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

least restrictive environment
Least Restrictive Environment

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

  • Opportunity to be educated with non-disabled peers, to the greatest extent possible
  • Access to the general education curriculum, extracurricular activities or any other program that non-disabled peers would be able to access

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least restrictive environment193
Least Restrictive Environment
  • Should be provided with supplementary aids and services necessary to achieve their educational goals if placed in a setting with non-disabled peers
  • Generally, the less opportunity a student has to interact and learn with non-disabled peers, the more that the setting is considered to be restricted

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

right to least restrictive intervention
Right to Least Restrictive Intervention
  • Least Restrictive, Most Effective
    • Consider lesser intense interventions if it is believed meaningful behavior change can be obtained

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

related websites
Related Websites
  • http://apbs.org/whatsnew.html#standards_of_practice
  • http://www.bacb.com
  • http://www.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpa/index.ht
  • http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/index.html

Sbardellati/Rosenberg

thank you and good night
THANK YOU AND GOOD NIGHT

Sbardellati/Rosenberg