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Sexual Behavior. Introduction to reproductive activities. Requires : Processes of maturation Stimulation. Abilitation of reproductive behavior. Dependent on a wide range of factors : neural mechanism hormones, pheromones and the sensory ceception of a variety of stimuli.

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introduction to reproductive activities
Introduction to reproductive activities
  • Requires :
    • Processes of maturation
    • Stimulation
abilitation of reproductive behavior
Abilitation of reproductive behavior
  • Dependent on a wide range of factors :
    • neural mechanism
    • hormones, pheromones
    • and the sensory ceception of a variety of stimuli
sensory factors
Sensory factors
  • Olfaction :
    • odor -- a stimulatory value in arousing the male sex drive
    • odorous substances are “pheromones”
    • “pheromone’’produced by the submaxillary gld, preputial fluid in the boar
sensory factors5
Sensory factors
  • Visual stimuli and photoperiodism :
    • visual recognition -- the secondary means of mutual identification
    • the length of each day -- determining breeding behavior
sensory factors6
Sensory factors
  • Photoperiodism operates in 2 principal ways :
    • long day breeder:exhibit their reproductive activities during the daily light period is long: horse, donkey
    • short day breeder:confine their breeding behavior -- a minimum amount of daily light:sheep, goat
sensory factors7
Sensory factors
  • Hormonal and pheromonal facilitation:
    • behavior depend on -- stimulation by estrogen (female) and androgen (male)
    • reproductive behavior associated with : courtship, mounting, and coital action (male) and courtship, soliciting and coital acceptance (female)
sensory factors8
Sensory factors
  • Hormonal and pheromonal facilitation: (cont)
    • “critical period (during epigenesis” -- determination of sexual behavior
    • sexual behavior display : result of the degree of hormone or other stimulation applied to elicit it
sensory factors9
Sensory factors
  • Seasonal +climatic breeding response :
    • the newborn is provided with enviroment favouring its survival to puberty
    • temperature effects :
      • ambient temperature -- difficult for animal to dissipate heat (hyperthermia)
      • change with climate - able to effect reproductive behavior
sensory factors10
Sensory factors
  • Inherent rhythm :
    • environmental factor -- only create the capacity for a rhythm which is endogenous >environment acting as a “zeitgeber” or “time-giver”
slide11
Reproductive activities
  • Classified animal by seasonal influence :
    • seasonal breeding animal : horse, sheep, goat, donkey
    • non-seasonal breeding animal : dog, swine, cattle.
physiological bases of sexual behavior
Physiological bases of sexual behavior
  • Genetic sex :
    • determined at the moment of conception
  • Organizational perinatal hormonal influences
    • castrated dog at birth : underdeveloped external genitalia
    • show receptive behavior to other male when treated with estrogen as adult
physiological bases of sexual behavior13
Physiological bases of sexual behavior
  • Organizational perinatal hormonal influences (cont)
    • puppies treated with androgen in utero and neonatally -- markedly alter anatomically (no vagina, small phalluses)
    • cattle + sheep : defeminezed by their neonatal androgen (feemartin)
physiological bases of sexual behavior14
Physiological bases of sexual behavior
  • Activational : adult hormonal influence
    • hormones have a permissive role : require a certain level for normal behavior , higher not increase libido or receptivity
    • hormonal treatment : not cure a deficiency of sexual behavior
    • male sexual behavior--depend on the activational action of testosterone
slide15
Physiological bases of sexual behavior
  • Social and Sexual Experience
    • total lack of experience, homosexual experience, overused for breeding : lead to sexual abnormalities
    • lack of socialization : dog reared without physical contact with other dog from age of 3 wks -- normal libido to estrous bitches but very poor at orientation
    • negative sexual experience
slide16
Physiological bases of sexual behavior
  • Adult hormonal and anatomical status
    • ovarian hormones : result in an attraction to males and receptivity to male mounting
    • some species (cat, pig) : complete pattern of estrous behavior -- elicited by estrogen alone
    • other, sheep + dog, progesterone must be administered
slide17
Physiological bases of sexual behavior
  • In ungulates, the behavioral action of estrogen -- facilitated by rapid preovulatory fall in progesterone, where in dogs a rise in progesterone is important
  • ovariectomy -- abolish estrous behavior in female
  • castration -- abolish sexual behavior in male
  • anatomical factors
slide18
Physiological bases of sexual behavior
  • Attractiveness of potential mate
    • higher mammals -- the sexual partner are influenced by attractiveness as well as by their hormonal levels
    • the attractivity of estrous bitch’s urine -- depends on her hormonal state
slide19
Physiological bases of sexual behavior
  • External environment
    • too many human spectors or slippery floor -- may inhibit sexual behavior
    • male generally are more influenced by the environment than female
slide20
Estrous Cycle
  • Estrous cycle :
    • proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus and anestrus
    • estrus :- state during which female seek and accept the male
    • when estrus :- behavioral change -- reducing in feeding, resting
    • behavioral features -- synchronized with various physiological changes of entire genital system
slide21
Estrous Cycle
  • Estrous cycle :
    • health, nutrition and housing -- influential on estrus
    • features of estrus intensity
      • quiescent estrus
      • aberrances of estrus
      • onset of estrus
      • vocalization in estrus
      • duration of estrus
      • post-partum estrus
slide22
Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior
  • Female
    • hypothalamic factor
      • GnRH in hypothalamus stimulate the release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary gland
      • FSH -- induce follicular development
      • FSH + LH -- together stimulate estrogen + progesterone production by ovary
slide23
Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior
  • Female
    • hypothalamic factor (cont)
      • most of estrous cycle, estrogen + progesterone maintain low levels of LH + FSH through a negative feedback action on hypothalamic pituitary axis
      • near proestrus, the situation is reversed : rising estrogen levels have positive feedback on LH secretion
slide24
Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior
  • Female
    • hypothalamic factor (cont)
      • resulting in the LH serge -- cause ovulation
slide26
Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior
  • Cyclical ovulation :
    • spontaneous ovulator : bitch, ewe, mare and sow
    • induced ovulators : cat, rabbit, camel
    • the seasonal nature of reproductive behavior -- due to central neural variation in responsiveness to gonadal hormones
  • olfactory influences and pheromone
slide27
Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior
  • Male
    • hypothalamic factor
      • FSH stimulate spermatogenesis
      • inhibin -- negative feedback on FSH release
      • LH -- stimulates testosterone release
slide29
Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior
  • Male (cont)
    • neocortex and amygdala
      • lesionin sensorimotor area of neocortex -- suppress copulatory performance
      • lesion of the amygdala or pyriform cortex -- produce hypersexuality
    • olfaction
      • important for identification of the estrous female
slide30
Cattle
  • The Cow
    • puberty occur 4-24 months of age
    • estrous cycle is 18-24 days (21 days)
    • onset of estrus
      • more often evening and cease in morning
      • actual receptivity lasts 13-14 hr
      • an estrous cow -- increase motor activity, decrease food intake
slide31
Cattle
  • The Cow
    • onset of estrus (cont)
      • increase investigative behavior : flehmen, sniffing, rubbing, licking
      • increase as does premounting behavior
slide32
Cattle
  • The Cow
    • detection of estrus
      • more critical in dairy industry as artificial insemination
      • physical sign : copious vaginal discharge, vulva relaxation
      • traditionally, the bull is the best detector, teaser bull or vasectomized
slide33
Cattle
  • The Cow
    • behavioral aberrations
      • silent heat
      • nymphomania : common in high production cow than beef breeds, show increase intense estrous behavior (persistently or at frequent or irregular intervals)
slide34
Cattle
  • The Bull
    • courtship
      • starting late in the cow’s proestrus
      • graze beside the cow, guarding her
      • during proestrus, most female are attractive to male, but not receptive
      • ejaculation occur within second intromission
slide36
Cattle
  • The Bull
    • courtship (cont)
      • bull are used for hand breeding or AI -- lack of the stimulatory effects of the prolonged courtship -- poor semen quality
    • sensory stimuli : need for elicit male sexual behavior
    • malnutrition : rarely effect
slide37
Cattle
  • The Bull
    • behavioral aberrations
      • masturbation : pelvic thrust, back arched, partially erect penis
      • importence : loss of libido ( musculoskeletal disease, obesity, balanoposthitis, injury to penis, testicular atrophy
slide38
Sheep and Goat
  • The Ewe and Doe
    • estrous cycle
      • short-day breeder : estrous cycle 14-20 day (~16 days)
      • estrous period 30-36 hr
      • tropical and subtropical : non-seasonal breeder
slide39
Sheep and Goat
  • The Ewe and Doe
    • the Ram effect
      • continuous exposure to a ram trends to increase the incidence of estrus
    • courtship behavior
      • actively seek out the male and sniff the male’s body, genital and thrust her head against his flank
slide40
Sheep and Goat
  • The Ewe and Doe
    • courtship behavior (cont)
      • increase motor activity : tail wagging
      • ram seeking behavior -- correlated with estrogen level
      • competition : agonistic behavior
slide42
Sheep and Goat
  • The Ram and Buck
    • courtship behavior
      • spends a great deal of time sniffing the other’s genitalia, urine -- flehmen response
    • dominance effect
    • behavioral aberration
slide43
Horse
  • The Mare
    • estrous cycle
      • long-day breeder : estrous cycle 20-23 days (~21 days)
      • sexual receptivity : 5-6 days
      • non-receptive mare: react to teaser’s advances by squealing, striking, kicking, moving away
      • full estrus : immobility, permitting the teaser to nibble her hump and wither
slide45
Horse
  • The Mare
    • foal heat
      • following parturition : quite predictable
      • begins from 5-18 days (~9 days) after foaling
slide46
Horse
  • The Mare
    • behavioral aberration
      • prolonged estrus (up to 90 days at the end of the breeding season)
      • split estrus (1-2 days of “shallow” estrus)
      • anestrus (physiological and behavioral anestrus)
slide47
Horse
  • The Mare
    • behavioral aberration (cont)
      • psychic heat (estrus without the normal physiological correlates of estrus)
      • nymphomania : excessive sexual behavior
      • silent heat
slide48
Horse
  • The Stallion
    • courtship behavior
      • vary with management practice
      • driving, herding, snaking with a distinctive head-down position (elicited by the presence of other stallions)
      • adequate period of sexual foreplay -- essential :- female is fully receptive
slide49
Horse
  • The Stallion
    • sensory stimuli
      • visual + sensory stimuli :- vital to the display of sexual behavior
      • masturbation : normal behavior in stallion
slide50
Horse
  • The Stallion
    • behavioral aberrations
      • common problem of sexual behavior in stallion
        • show sexual interest, not mount, or mount but not ejaculate
        • low or no libido
        • mount only when another specific present
        • injury
        • geldings that behave like stallion
slide51
Horse
  • The Stallion
    • behavioral aberrations
      • treatmetn of any behavior problem must begin with elimination, or at least identification, or physical impairment : genital injury, limb injury
      • self-multilation
      • overuse and rough handling
slide52
Pigs
  • The Sow
    • estrous cycle
      • non-seasonal breeder, estrous cycle 18-24 days (~21 days)
      • estrous period 40-46 hr
      • increase activity as estrus approach : urination, calling male with soft, rhythmic grunt
      • estrous sow attempt to mount other estrous sow
slide53
Pigs
  • The Sow
    • estrous cycle (cont)
      • immobility response of the fully receptive sow require both auditory and olfactory stimuli
      • olfactory stimuli :- pheromones present in both saliva + preputial secretion of boar (5-alpha-androst (16-ene-3 one)
slide54
Pigs
  • The Sow
    • behavioral aberration
      • failure to reproduce in confinement
slide55
Pigs
  • The Boar
    • courtship behavior
      • pursue the female, attempting to nose her sides, flanks and vulva
      • during the phase of courtship, boar use a series of soft, gutteral grunts, about 6-8 second (“courting song”)
      • ejaculate time (as dog) 3-20 min
slide57
Pigs
  • The Boar
    • olfactory stimuli
      • unimportant in stimulating a boar to mount a female or dummy
    • early socialization
      • raised in isolation from 3 wks of age copulated less with estrous sow than boar raised in group
    • aberration : difference in the level of “sex drive” (between individual)
slide58
Dogs
  • The bitch
    • estrous cycle
      • non-seasonal breeder : cycle is extremely variable from individual to individual , or from heat to next heat
      • usually 2 cycle yearly
slide59
Dogs
  • The Bitch
    • courtship behavior
      • marked by play behavior in proestrus, decrease during estrus
      • usually 2 cycle yearly
slide60
Dogs
  • The Dogs
    • courtship behavior
      • urine of estrous bitch -- to be more attractive to the dog than vaginal secretion
      • canids do not show the classic flehmen response of the ungulate
      • possible that the “tongueing response”
slide61
Dogs
  • The Dogs
    • behavioral aberration
      • lack of sufficient social contact -- inhibit successful copulation
      • timidy, especially in poodles + German shepherd
      • masturbation
      • castration : prepubertal castration -- greatly reduces sexual interest
slide62
Cats
  • The Queen
    • estrous cycle
      • seasonal polyestrous breeder
      • usually 2 cycle yearly
    • catnip
      • nepetalactone, a volatile terpenoid in catnip plant (Nepeta cateria) -- elicit behavior similar to sexual behavior
slide63
Cats
  • The Queen
    • courtship behavior
      • call and purr, restless and show increased general motor activity
      • very affectionate toward the owners
      • urinates frequently, rub her head , flank on furniture (produce pheromone)
slide65
Cats
  • The Toms
    • courtship behavior
      • locate estrous cat via olfactory cue
      • show flehmen response or gape, call, around her and sniff her genitalia
      • non-receptive female will actively, even violently, rebuff a male
slide66
Cats
  • The Toms
    • courtship behavior
      • if female accept -- male approach her from side and behind and grips her neck with hes mouth
      • ejaculation occurs second after intromission (< 10 sec)
slide67
Cats
  • The Toms
    • behavioral aberration
      • castration : prepubertal (6-8 m) -- generally eliminates sexual behavior
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